"I have no name:
I am but two days old."
What shall I call thee?
"I happy am,
Joy is my name."
Sweet joy befall thee!
Traditionally in english speaking countries a child at birth gets two names: the personal name (first name) and average a name (middle name). Most Important, essential introduces exactly first, personal name. Under term "personal name" is understood first of all "individual name subject" (A. V. Speranskaja), Officially bolted for him at birth. The documentary reflection have got From all categories of the personal name first. In base their lay nickname, which were used as nickname for indication of people. How notes A. V. Speranskaja, And at our time "personal name differ from nickname mainly that that in first nominal importance an cortex not so obviously, as in the second. In nicknames it always fresh... In the personal names nominal importance an cortex nearly always obscured. The Nickname any once newly, personal name go from generation in generation...".
Many personal name by a narrow margin differ from nickname (Brun = but) name, b) nickname, in) adjective). Here possible select the subgroup strictly names (Daene, Wulf, Beald) and name of type Ethelberg, Leofwin, Wigfrith, Frithuwulf. In derived personal names specifically stands out general german suffix -ing, which in the first place was used as antroponimicheskij, pointing that carrier is a descendant one,is marked by subject: Bruning 'son Bruna'.
As of K. B. Zajcevoj, At present in english antroponimike only 8% accounts for name of ancient english period.
After normannskogo conquest Ancient english name, been used on length of centuries, nearly completely disappear. In list from 800 names of jurors in county Kent in 1313-1314 there was only five carriers of ancient english names. The Influence of normannskogo conquest on antroponimi'u was shown also in speedup of trends of ]transition a nickname in surnames. The Third effect of normannskogo conquest was a concentration newborn: 5 most popular names have formed over 60% all noted male personal names already.
What name become most popular in this period (XI в. and hereinafter)? Broad spreading in ambience of aristocracy in the beginning, but then and in more extensive peasant masses have gained such brought by norsemans of name, as William, Richard, Robert, Hugh, Ralph and others. Simultaneously with normannskogo conquest was consolidated the power church, which to medium XV в. so strong that has been able to require from acknowledging god gave name only canonized saint. Become the wide-spread biblical name John, Peter, James, Michael, Philip, Simon, Luke, Mark - for boys and Mary, Joan, Agnes, Catherine, Margaret, Ann(e) - for girl.
Feminine list of names in XII v. there was is much varied; except biblical personal names and names saint in he was used and exotic, unaccustomed ancient english of name: Hodierna, Italia, Melodia, Antigone, Cassandra, Norma, Splendor and others. We will Bring else several examples popular in this period of names: David, Thomas, Nicholas, Gilbert, Martin, Maurice, Adam, Stephen, Eleanor, Isabel, Matilda, Margaret. After XIII в., with reinforcement of influence church, sharply decreases the amount of names, increases their frequency, goes "concentration of names" (Bondaletov V. D.). With coming the developed feudalism in Englands, with reinforcement dug church legally legal becomes only that personal name, which was given at christening. Change the name was permitted only when taking the spiritual san or under cut in monks.
After determination an anglikanskoj church (XVI v.) under the law was permitted to name the child by any name at the option of godparents of parents. In middle ages in documents necessary there was exactly write the name, given at christening, since nickname and surnames possible there was have several. Only to 1730 definitively official becomes the surname, inheritted on father. Spreading Biblical names promote mystic, played in different holidays. Created on plots of Bible and Gospels, mystic settle down usually public authoritieses, mugs, alliances and shops of handicraftsmans on Cristmas, Easter and other church holidays on fairs and town areas. So, in english list of names came from mystic such name, as Adam, Eve, Noah, Sarah, Joseph, Daniel, Sampson, David, Susanna, Judith, Anna (from OLD TESTAMENT), Baptist, John, James, Peter, Simon, Matthew, Thomas (from NEW TESTEMENT). VAfter Reformation (XVI v.) of the personal name not biblical saint for a while disuse (Austin, Basil, Bennet, Christopher, Dennis, Martin, Fabian, Hilary, Quentin, Valentine and others.). Get spreading an ancient jewish name from OLD TESTAMENT: Abigail 'father it was pleased', Abraham 'father many', Adam 'red', Bathsheba 'seductive', Benjamin 'son to my sadnesses', Daniel 'god has settled a dispute between', David 'friend and others.
Separated in XVI v. from anglikanskoj church puritane to distinguish their own childrens from mass atheist, have defined and their own specific principles their therefor that to give him determined name. The Known that puritan distinguished the religious fanaticism, convictiom in its infallibilities . Many of them were have to run from England on continent, a part - in North America, where prudish personal name were particularly wide-spread on northeast present USA. Often they gave its childrens of the latin name of the own composition: Beata 'lucky', Desiderius and Desideratus 'wanted', Deodatus 'given by god', Renovata 'updated. Amongst the most known names, created puritanami (particularly at the beginning initially XVII v.), meet: Free-Gift, Reformation, Earth, Dust, Ashes, Delivery, More-Fruit, Tribulation, Discipline, Joy Again, From Above, Thankful, Praise-God, Live Well.
Separated in XVI в. from anglikanskoj church puritane to distinguish their own children from mass of atheists, have defined and their own specific principles their adverbial. Known that puritan distinguish the religious fanaticism, "infallibilities". As a result oppression many of them there were have to run from England on continent, part - in North America, where prudish personal name there were particularly wide-spread on northeast present USA. Often they gave its childof latin name of own composition: Beata 'lucky', Desiderius and Desideratus 'yellow', Deodatus 'given by god', Renovata 'updated. Amongst the most known names, created puritanami (particularly at the beginning initially XVII в.), meet: Free-Gift, Reformation, Earth, Dust, Ashes, Delivery, More-Fruit, Tribulation, Discipline, Joy Again, From Above, Thankful, Praise-God, Live Well.
Often puritane fell into extremity, forming name of type No-Merit, Sorry-for-Sin, Much-Mercey, Sin-Deny, Fear-Not, or using specifically rare, it is difficult pronounced biblical name (Bezaleel, Habakkuk). Sometimes the biblical name were used with negative sense (Cain, Dinah,Tamar). For foundlings exist also wholly determined name, corresponded to their position: Helpless, Repentance, Forsaken and others. Being in its mass bad seized by people, puritane could not avoid the mistakes and embarrassments in its name a creative activity. In its religious alacrity they create the name-slogans of type known at the end 16-го centuries Jesus-Christ-came-into-the-world-to-save Barebone and its brother If-Christ-had-not-died-for-thee-thou-hadst-been-damned Barebone (the last there was more known simply as Damned Barebone!). Such a name often were subjected to the ridicule. So, beside B. Johnson in Bartholomew Fair we find following dialogue about prudish names:
|QUARLOUS:||О, I know him! a baker, is he not?|
|LITTLEWIT:||He was a baker, sir, but he does dream now, and see visions: he has given over his trade.|
|QUARLOUS:||His Christian name is Zeal-of-the-Land?|
|LITTLEWIT:||Yes, sir, Zeal-of-the-Land Busy.|
|WINIFE:||How! What a name's there!|
|LITTLEWIT:||0, they all have such names, sir; he was witness for Win, here, and named her Win-to-Fight: you thought her name had been Winifred, did you not?|
Many from unusual names, created puritanami, have fallen out of use to XIX in. (the type Lament, Helpless, Obedience or Zelophehad), having left observable trace in America. However, contribution puritan in modern english list of names it is impossible completely ignore. From they remain assimilated biblical personal name Samuel, Benjamin, Joseph, Jacob, Daniel, Sarah, Susan, Sharon, Hannah, as well as name from apell'ativov: Faith, Hope, Charity, Prudence.
The English writers not only promote the spreading of row of names, but also create the new name themselves. So, Dzhonatan Swift create two personal names: Vanessa and Stella. The Hero of plays U. Shekspira have returned their own name many inhabitants of england. Due to Shekspiru fell into broad use of such name, as Silvia, Celia ("As You Please"), Julia , Juliet ("Romeo and Dzhul'etta"), Jessica ("Venetian merchant"), Ophelia ("Hamlet"), Viola ("Twelfth night").
In XVIII в. in connection with rebirth of gothic novel and reinforcement of interest the fascination begins to gotike by old-time personal names, occurs the rebirth some ancient english and medieval names: Edgar, Alfred, Galahad, Emma, Arthur, Albert, Lancelot, Matilda, Maud, Rosabel and others. Under influence of popular novels В. Scott, poetries S. Kolridzha, A. Tennisona, Dzh. Bajrona get spreading of such name, as Christabel, Manfred, Rowena, Cedric, Quentin, Minna, Guy, Diana, Fenella, Nigel, Roland, Ralph, Hugh, Walter and others. We will Bring small list of writers and popular names, which spreading promote their product:
U. Tekkerej — Esmond
R. Blakmur — Lorna
L. Carroll — Alice
A. Tennison — Clara, Clare, Matilda
Ch. Rid — Reginald
S. Richardson — Pamela
Dzh. M. B]rri — Wendy
Dzh. B. Shou — Candida
G. Spenser — Clarinda
A. Lajon — Edna, Joyce
A. Poup — Belinda
Dzh. Aliot — Romola
F. Sidni — Pamela
Ф. Сидни — Sybil, Sibley
F. Sidni — Fleur
At present in repertoire of english own personal names dominate old, sanctified by national tradition of name. From most observable phenomenas of the lasts of years possible to note got popularity (under obviously american influence) trend to name the children by scenic names of known movue stars, heroes of detective serieses and comicses.
On statistics, all english children get at birth two names (first + middle names): the personal and average. The Custom to give the child an average a name occurs to traditions to assign newborn several personal names. In modern list of names events of apropriation two or three middle names meet more often, than full absence of middle name. Though and no law, limiting amount of middle names, more four additional middle names usually is not assigned: Charles Philip Arthur George, Andrew Albert Christian Edward, Edward Antony Richard Louis, Anne Elisabeth Alice Louise. The Role of middle name at present - serve additional discriminating sign, for persons particularly, who carry the widespread name and surnames. As Middle names are used both name personal, and place names, common nouns etc. Often as middle names are used the surnames of people, in honour of which it is assigned. For instance, exactly so have got the middle names seven sons Ch. Dikkensa: Charles Kaliford Boz Dikkens (on pen name of father), Walter Landor Dikkens (in honour of known writer), Fransis Dzheffri Dikkens (in honour of other writer), Al'fred Tennison Dikkens (in honour of poet), Henry Filding Dikkens (in honour of famous english writer), Edward Bul'ver Litton Dikkens (in honour of writer).
In Scotlands is strong the tradition to give the middle names to child on surnames full-grown in childhood. Most recently in Englands was else considered generally accepted to give at birth to boy traditional, "safe" name and several more unusual, not wide-spread average a name, but under choice name girl to use same formula, but already in inverse order: if name dislikes the growing an girl, that always possible use the middle name. Apropos dialect, knowned events, when personal name is forgotten completely, existing in documents only or registration books, but in everyday address is enjoying full rights is used the average a name. So, full name known british first-night G. Vil'sona James Harold Wilson, But all over was used only combination Harold Wilson. The Name of large politician John Enoch Powell there was abbreviated before Enoch Powell, under which it and known majority of english population. Historically average a name much younger other antroponimov. First appear the name, then surnames and only in XVII в. appear the middle names unoriginal from both classes of names. As was it already noted above, middle names seldom are used outside the official documents, business correspondence etc. However in american everyday life a middle name is added much greater accent, than in british even though it and denominated only by caps: Harry S. Truman, Franklin D. Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy and others.
Hitherto we spoke of development full, or source, names, which are used for names
persons in documents, certifying personality of owners, as well as when referencing to persons in official situation. Full, or source name has the derived forms, or derivaty (abbreviated, tender, diminutive, familiar and etc.), which are used mainly in unofficial situation, in circle familiar, friends, close and native:
Father calls me William,
Sister calls me Will,
Mother calls me Willie,
But the fellers call me Bill!
E. Field. Jest 'Fore Christmas
The Amount an derivatov does not yield to the exact account. How notes A. I. Rybakin, "Is explained this nature of their operation: fantasy of creators lists of names for referencing to friends, loved, close, native and to children boundless and vast". Dominate as models of formation an derivatov of reduction and affixal production of words: Ben from Benjamin, Dan from Daniel, Danny from Daniel, Jimmy from James, Betty from Elizabeth, Johnny from John and others. Sometimes beside one name can be several derivatov Eg., popular nursery rhyme:
Eliza, Elizabeth, Betsy and Bess,
They went to the woods to get a bird's nest;
They found a nest with four eggs in it;
They took one apiece, and left three in it,
where Eliza, Betsy and Bess - derivaty full name Elizabeth. We will Bring else several derivatov:
Babs from Barbara
Bart from Bartholomew
Bass from Sebastian
Becky from Rebecca
Bert from Albert, Gilbert, Herbert etc.
Bob from Robert
Bill from William
Cathie from Catherine
Connie from Conrad, Constance
Dirk from Derek
Di from Diana
Dick from Richard
Ginny from Virginia
Tricia from Patricia
Drina from Alexandrina
Given from Gwendolen
Harry from Henry
Josy from Josephine
Kit from Christopher
Meg from Margaret
Nessie from Agnes
Spike from Michael
Sandie from Alexander
Ted from Edward
Wendy from Gwendoline
At present derivaty often become legal, official names, exists the trend to use them in business situation, in seal, public appearances (amongst, for instance, Jimmy Carter, Billy Graham, Bill Clinton and others).