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Abraham Lincoln (Авраам Линкольн) - American statesman, 16th President of the United States in the years 1861-1865, one of the organizers of the Republican Party (1854), speaking against slavery. During the American Civil War of 1861-1865 the government of Lincoln held a series of democratic reforms, in particular, has enacted laws on the Homestead Act, the abolition of slavery, ensured the defeat of Confederate troops. He was born February 12, 1809, near the Hodzhenvilla. He died April 15, 1865, in Washington.
Abraham Lincoln was born into a poor farmer's family. Due to the frequent moving attend school intermittently, but regularly engaged in self-education, becoming an avid bookworms. From an early age, Abraham helped the family on the farm, he worked for wages.
From 1831 Lincoln settled in New Salem (Illinois), where he worked as a clerk in a store, a surveyor, and then joined the militia opposing the Indians, but did not participate in combat. In 1833-36 was the local postmaster, and studied law, and in 1836 was admitted to practice law.
In 1834-42 Abraham Lincoln was elected four times in the Illinois legislature on the Whig party. In 1837 he moved to the state capital of Springfield. In 1842 he married Mary Todd. In 1847-49 he represented Illinois in the lower house of the U.S. Congress, opposed the war with Mexico and the slave trade. In subsequent years, practiced law, became one of the leading lawyers of the State, was a consultant to the railroad, "Illinois Central".
In 1856, Abraham Lincoln joined the newly formed Republican Party. During the elections in 1858 attracted worldwide attention the debate between Lincoln and his rival for a place in the U.S. Senate, S. Douglas. The victory went to Douglas, but Lincoln's speech "House divided", the leitmotif of which was the impossibility of the continued existence of the country in a state of "semi-freedom and polurabstva", became in time a textbook, and he - a national figure.
In the presidential election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln was able to win three of their opponents, having received the vast majority of Electoral College votes. His stay at the White House March 4th 1861 to April 15, 1865 coincided with the most tragic period in U.S. history - the Civil War in the United States. At Lincoln's election slave states responded secession - withdrawal from the Union and the declaration in February 1861 the Confederate States of America. "We must not be enemies," - declared Lincoln when he took office, but the Confederate armed uprising prompted him to take action. A.Linkoln considered slavery evil, inevitable in the south of the country's existing economic conditions. The question of slavery it is the responsibility of the states themselves, and believed that the government has no constitutional right to interfere in this issue. However, he strongly opposed the spread of slavery into new territories, which undermined the foundations of slavery, because it will inevitably require extensive character advancement on undeveloped lands of the West..
An important achievement of the administration of Abraham Lincoln was the adoption in May 1862, Homestead Act, which provides that every citizen of the country granting the land allotment of 160 acres (64 hectares). The law inflicted a heavy blow to slavery and led to a radical solution of the agrarian problem - the development of agriculture by way of farming.
As events unfold rather moderate, compromise position on slavery, Lincoln changed. The main purpose of the administration - the restoration of the Union - was unattainable without the abolition of slavery throughout the country. To acknowledge this reality Abraham Lincoln did not come immediately. Purely civilian people, under pressure from all sides, criticized for its military defeat and economic difficulties, the president at the right time to take decisive steps to quell the rebellion, not stopping even to the restrictions of civil liberties or the expenditure of funds not yet approved by Congress.
Lincoln advocated the gradual emancipation of the slaves on a reimbursable basis, but the time came when he realized that "slavery must die that the nation might live." 22 September 1862, he announced that from 1 January of the coming year, all slaves "henceforth and forever will be free, "and December 30 signed the "Emancipation Proclamation." 1863 brought the armies of the Union victory at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. Speaking November 19th 1863 at the opening of the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Abraham Lincoln said that the soldiers resting here gave their lives so that the country has found a "new birth of freedom" and "the government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." This brief, total of 10 sentences, it has become a true manifesto of American democracy, and Lincoln has strengthened its reputation as a brilliant orator.
In the elections of 1864, despite objections from some politicians and their own doubts, Abraham Lincoln defeated his opponent in the Democratic Party, General JB McClellan. Lincoln believed that freed slaves should be enshrined in law. At his insistence, Congress 31 January 1865 adopted the XIII-th Amendment to the Constitution prohibiting slavery in the United States and entered into force after ratification by the states in December of that year.
In early 1865 the northerners have a quick victory was never in doubt. On the agenda were issues of Reconstruction - restoration of 11 seceded states as full subjects of the federation. Abraham Lincoln in December 1863 promised amnesty to all rebels, except for their immediate supervisors, subject to an oath of allegiance to the United States and the recognition of the abolition of slavery. Acts of secession of the southern states he considered legally invalid and was convinced that its abolition will automatically mean the restoration of the state in the Union.
The president spoke for an early conclusion of peace, and personally went to 3 February to meet with leaders of the Confederacy, broke down owing to the unconstructive position of the Southerners. In his second inaugural address, Lincoln called upon to renounce vengeance. "Not to anyone harboring evil, full of mercy, firm in the truth," Americans need to "bind up the wounds of the country ... to do everything possible to gain and maintain a just and lasting peace in the house and with all nations of the world." President failed to realize their dreams.
April 14, 1865, on Good Friday to play in a theater in Washington, Ford's fanatical supporter of the Confederate actor John W. Booth entered the presidential box and shot Abraham Lincoln in the head. The next morning, without regaining consciousness, the president died.
Millions of Americans, both black and white, came to pay their last respects to their president at the time which lasted two and a half weeks traveling funeral train from Washington to Springfield, where Lincoln was buried in Oak Ridge. The tragic death of Lincoln in many ways helped create a halo around his name of a martyr who died for the liberation of slaves.
The memory of Lincoln immortalized in the memorial, which was opened in the U.S. capital in 1922. Inside this white marble structure by sculptor Charles D. Ffrench put a six-meter statue of a seated deep in thought President-Liberator. On the inner walls of the memorial under the allegorical paintings reproduced texts Gettysburg and second inaugural speeches of Abraham Lincoln.
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