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Elizaveta Petrovna (Елизавета Петровна) — Russian[ru] empress with 1741, the daughter of Peter I and Catherine I-st. Enthroned Guard. During her reign have been significant advances in the development of economy, culture and Russia's foreign policy, which has contributed to the activities of Mikhail Lomonosov, P.I. and Shuvalov, A.P. Bestuzhev-Rumin and others. Zodiac - Capricorn.
Elizabeth was born on December 29 (December 18, Old Style), 1709, in St. Petersburg. Since childhood, enjoyed the love and care of his father, early literate, also taught the French language, the basics of history, geography. On character was gay, good-natured and whimsical at the same time and quick-tempered. More than anything, loved secular entertainment: balls, dances, hunting, masquerades.
Elizabeth was reputed to be the most beautiful woman of the time, loved to dress up, never wore one dress twice and observe that none of the ladies of the court was not dressed or groomed her beautiful or even appeared in a dress of the same matter (after the death of the Empress in her wardrobe was found about 15 thousand. dresses). At the court built plans for her marriage. Elizaveta Petrovna wanted to give something to the French King Louis XV, then Prince Karl Friedrich of Holstein. There were other candidates, but the marriage she never entered.
G.-H. Groot."Equestrian Portrait of Empress Elizabeth with black boy." 1743. Tretyakov Gallery.
After his mother's death (in 1727), Elizabeth moved closer to the Emperor Peter II, who, apparently, was in love with her. In the reign of Elizabeth Anna Ivanovna position was complicated because the Empress envied her beauty and saw in it a dangerous political rival. At the same time, she enjoyed great sympathy for residents of St. Petersburg, especially Guards officers and soldiers, who saw in her the heiress of Peter the Great. Ministers of Anna Leopoldovna advised her as soon as possible to remove Elizabeth from St. Petersburg, but who knew about these plans tsesarevna November 25, 1741 using the company Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment coup and usurped power, which had no rights.
The circumstances of his accession to the throne of Elizabeth's reign affected. Was proclaimed a course to return to the legacy of Peter the Great, in particular, restored the role of the Senate, and some other central institutions. However, in the late 1740s - early 1750s on the initiative of Peter Shuvalov had been a number of serious reforms, the most important of which was the abolition in 1754 of internal customs. This has led to a significant revival of trade relations between the different regions of the country. Were founded the first Russian banks - Nobles, Merchants and Copper; implemented tax reform will improve the financial situation of the country; was developed heavy industry. In 1754 created a new commission to make law code, which completed its work by the end of the reign of Elizabeth. However, the transformation process was interrupted by the Seven Years' War (1756-1762).
In foreign policy, the government of Elizabeth adhere to the principles of Peter the Great. In 1743 was awarded Abosky peace treaty (the world), which recognized the results of the Russian-Swedish War of 1741-1743. During this period, the head of Russian diplomacy was Chancellor AP Bestuzhev-Rumin, is focusing on the alliance with Austria and Prussia strengthening opposition. This led to the fact that Russia was embroiled in the Seven Years' War, participation in which imposed a heavy burden on the economy of the country. However, the military operations of the Russian army were successful. She won a number of major victories, occupied East Prussia, and even (briefly) Berlin.
Elizabeth had a practical mind, skillfully led his court, maneuvering between the various political factions. However, active participation in public affairs, it did not take, only occasionally interested in foreign policy. When considering the important issues are often hesitant and long postponed decision-making. Immediately after the accession of it, a religious woman, she vowed that during her reign will not be the death penalty. Although this decision has not received legislative registration, Empress strictly stick to it. However, her reign was marked by several loud political processes, in particular, Lopukhins (1743) and Bestuzhev-Rumin (1758).
Even until the reign of Elizabeth have started an affair with a Ukrainian chorister AG Razumovsky, which is believed to be the Empress secretly married in 1742. received the title of Count Razumovsky, medals, titles and major awards, but participation in public affairs almost did not accept. Later became a favorite of Elizabeth I. Shuvalov, who patronized education. On his initiative in 1755 Moscow University was founded, and in 1760 - Academy of Fine Arts. Elizabeth's reign was a time of flowering of Russian culture and science. In general, the reign of Elizabeth was a time of political stability, strengthening of the government and its institutions, the final fixing in Russian society, the results of Peter's reforms. (Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius)
Article C. Ascension"Elizabeth" from"New Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary" (1911 -1916). Article is given to the conservation of the original spelling and punctuation.
Elizabeth - Russian Empress from 25 November 1741 to 24 December 1761, the daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine I (born 18 December 1709). Childhood and youth she spent in the suburban villages and Transfiguration Izmailovo, allowing Moscow and its environs remained close to her for life.
Education Elizabeth limited dance training, treatment and secular French; already being the empress, she was very surprised to learn that"Britain is an island," before she thought it was strange.
Declared of age in 1722, Elizabeth became the center of diplomatic various projects. Peter the Great thought her to marry Louis XV; When this plan failed, the princess began wooing for minor German princes, before settling on the Holstein prince Charles Augustus, who had her very much. The death of the groom and upset this marriage, and for the ensuing shortly after the death of Catherine I care about the marriage of Elizabeth ceased completely.
The information provided in the reign of Peter II itself, alive, friendly, everyone who was able to say a kind word, besides a prominent and well-proportioned, with a beautiful face, Princess Elizabeth gave herself entirely whirlwind of fun and hobbies. She made friends with the young emperor, to contribute to this fall Menshikov, and at the same time surrounded herself with"random" people like AB Buturlina and AY Shubin. With the ascension to the throne of power and suspicious of Anna Ivanovna, Elizabeth lost her brilliant position at court and was forced to live almost continuously in their own backyards, Alexander settlement, shutting in close circle of devotees to her people, among them a 1733 first place was occupied by Alexey Razumovsky. Schoolgirl French tutor Rambura and obedient daughter of his father confessor Dubyansky, she spent time in endless balls and church services, caring for the Parisian fashions and Russian cuisine, constantly in need of money, despite the large funds. Indifference to politics and the inability to intrigue, when there are also abroad grandson of Peter the Great, Prince of Holstein, rescued from Elizabeth vows in a monastery and from marriage to the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Meiningen, but the big displeasure between her and Anna Ivanovna flared repeatedly . No better position was the princess and her relocation to St. Petersburg under John VI, although Biron, apparently favored her and allow her to extend from the treasury of the content.
But now to change the fate of Elizabeth came from the society itself. 10-year reign of the Germans at Anna Ivanovna and Anna Leopoldovna spawned general discontent, which was the expression of an active guard, which served strong citadel of the Russian nobility. Perturbed oppression inozemschiny national feeling compelled to dream of returning to the days of Peter the Great; Converter wound suffered severe orders idealization, and Princess Elizabeth became seem able to bring Russia on the former road. When created in 1730 the regime began to decompose and rulers, the Germans began to devour each other, in an environment of open guard showed signs of excitement. This mood had tried to take advantage of the French ambassador Chetardy and Swedish - Baron Nolken. By the enthronement of Elizabeth first thought distract Russia from the alliance with Austria, and the second - to return to Sweden by Peter the Great conquered the land. Intermediary between foreign residents and Elizabeth was her physician-physician Lestocq. Indecision Chetardy and excessive claims Nolken made, however, Elizabeth interrupted negotiations with them, have become impossible because the Swedish government announced Anna Leopoldovna war, under the pretext of protecting the rights of the throne of the son of Anna Petrovna, the Duke of Holstein, the future Emperor Peter III. But the performance of the Guards regiments to march and the intention to arrest Anna Leopoldovna Lestocq prompted Elizabeth to hurry up with a decisive step.
At 2 am on Nov. 25, 1741, Elizabeth, accompanied by her close persons appeared in the Grenadier company of the Preobrazhensky and reminding whose daughter she, ordered the soldiers to follow him, forbidding them to indulge in arms, as they threatened kill all the Germans. Arrest Brunswick names occurred very quickly without causing any bloodshed, and the next day there was a manifesto briefly heralds the entry of Elizabeth to the throne. This upheaval in society spawned an explosion of national feeling. The then journalism - welcome odes and church sermons - was full of bile and spiteful reviews of previous period, with its rulers, the Germans, and the equally immoderate praise of Elizabeth, as the winner of the foreign element. The same feelings, but grosser forms shown and the street. Home of many foreigners in St. Petersburg suffered defeat, and sent in the army to Finland was almost total extermination of foreign officers.
Make sure all the Company's approval the occured changes, Elizabeth issued November 28 another manifesto for details and do not hesitate in expressions proved the illegality of the rights to the throne of John VI and exhibited a number of accusations against the German timeservers and their Russian friends. All of them were brought to justice, which determined Osterman and Minikh death penalty by quartering and Levenvoldu, Mengdenu and Golovkin - just the death penalty. Erected the scaffold, they were pardoned and exiled to Siberia.
Providing for a power, Elizabeth hastened to reward people who have contributed to its accession to the throne or even have her committed, and make of them a new government. Grenadier company of the Preobrazhensky Regiment was called Life campaign. Soldiers from the nobility were not enrolled in nobles, corporals, sergeants and officers promoted to the rank. All of them, moreover, were granted lands mainly from the confiscated estates of foreigners. From close to Elizabeth persons were particularly showered favors Alexei Razumovsky, morganatic wife Empress, built in the count's dignity and made field marshal and a knight of all orders, and Lestocq also received the title of Count and vast land. But a French doctorru and Little-Russian Cossacks became prominent public figures: the first did not know Russian and therefore participated only in foreign affairs, and even then not for long, because in 1748 fell in disgrace for sharp expression of Elizabeth and was exiled in Ustyug; the second is deliberately withdrawn from meaningful participation in public life, feeling his lack of preparation for the role of governor.
First place in the new government were busy so representatives of the social group, which in the name of national feeling offended overturned German regime. Many of them were before the coup simple Guards officers, such as the old servant Elizabeth, Peter Shuvalov and Mikhail Vorontsov, who are now with their relatives acquired the most prominent value in the government environment. Beside them stood by the government and some of the figures of previous governments, such as AP Bestuzhev-Rumin, Prince AM Cherkassky and Prince Troubetzkoy NY, fell into disgrace, or not play an independent role in the two preceding reign.
First time on accession to the throne of Elizabeth herself took an active part in public affairs. Reverence for the memory of her father, she wanted to rule the country in the spirit of its traditions, but limited only to the abolition of the Cabinet, from which, as stated in nominal decree,"was a considerable lapse of affairs, and justice has come quite a weakness," and return to the Senate earlier rights related with the restoration of the prosecutor's office, the chief magistrate and berg- and Manufactures colleagues. After these first steps, Elizabeth, having gone almost entirely in court life, with its fun and intrigue, passed control to the empire in the hands of its employees; only occasionally between hunting, impoverishing and ball she paid little attention to foreign policy. For doing the latter and partly for consideration related military and financial issues in a month after the coup, there was at the Empress informal advice of the people closest to her, which was later named the Conference at the Imperial Court.
This advice does not displeased the Senate, as many, and, moreover, the most influential members of the first input and the second, and attempts Chancellor Bestuzhev in 1747 and 1757's. turn it into an institution like the Supreme Privy Council, or cabinet, were rejected by Elizabeth. Other still more interested in Elizabeth Petrovna question of succession, which became particularly acute after the swollen dark intrigues Lestocq case NF Lopukhina and refusal to renounce Anna Leopoldovna for their children from the right to the throne. To appease the minds of Elizabeth summoned to St. Petersburg his nephew, Karl Peter Ulrich, who November 7, 1742 was proclaimed heir to the throne. Provided between the Senate, where members were, without exception, representatives of the"noble Russian nobility" internal politics swerved out of the way, which put its first order of the new sovereign. Assembled dignitaries in the Senate, with Vorontsov and Shuvalovs headed, do not think about the future restoration of Peter's orders concerning the implementation animates Converter idea of a police state with absolute monarchy, carried out non-estate bureaucracy.
Not this idea, and national feeling and noble caste interests to do now is the main stimulus of government activity to which the traditional need to take care of replenishing the treasury sufficient means to maintain the yard, the bureaucracy and the army. The new government had no program of major reforms of the state system. This issue, however, was raised twice, Igor Shuvalov handed Elizabeth a note about"fundamental laws" and Peter Shuvalov presented to the Senate on the benefits for the state"free of knowing the views of society." But these projects have not received further movement, as the nobility, achieving actually participate in government activities, did not think, as in 1730, the formal limitation of sovereignty.
But the government in their daily practice successfully implemented other aspirations of the nobility to them for accession to the throne of Anna Ivanovna. First of all, the public service has been turned into a privilege only the nobility. In the reign of Elizabeth does not appear, except Razumovsky, no statesman, released from the lower strata of society, as it was almost a rule under Peter the Great. Even foreigners were born in the service only in the case when for some reason was not capable or knowledgeable business Russian nobility. This gave the opportunity to stay in the diplomatic field Germans.
However, most service gentry became easier. The law on the 25-year service life, published in 1735 and immediately suspended, has now received full force. The practice also legalized as 25 years of service nobles were actually in a much shorter period, as the government generously permitted them preferential and long-term leave, which is so entrenched that in 1756 - 1757 years. had to resort to tough measures to force zazhivshihsya on their estates officers to come to the army. In the same era, and spread among the nobility recorded in custom shelves still in its infancy and thus well before the age of majority to reach the officer ranks.
In the 1750s in the Senate was prepared by decree of the complete liberation of the nobility of public service, accidentally published a successor to Elizabeth. Restored prosecutors did not have the same force as a result of the severe service sometimes guilt began to take the character of gainful employment. This applies particularly to the magistrates, to make at this time indefinite. Knut, penalty and confiscation of property, coming under Peter the Great and Anna Ivanovna for embezzlement and bribery, is now replaced by a decrease in the rank, the transfer to another place and rarely dismissal.
Administrative customs, in the absence of control and fear of punishment, fell extremely low."Laws - confessed herself Elizabeth, - the execution of their lack of general internal enemies. Nesytaya alchba greed before reached that some places established for justice, became the mart, covetousness and passion led judges indulgence and omission approval of lawlessness."Height birth element in the central and regional administration relented, however, by the fact that of the 40-s of the XVIII century, the national organism, in general, deal with the consequences of Peter's financial crisis. In the reign of Elizabeth taxes were introduced serviceability than ever before, the amount of arrears decreased, and the size of capitation money was reduced by 2 - 5 cents a soul. Manifesto of 1752, a simple 2 1/2 million shortfall poll, including from 1724 to 1747, publicly declared that the empire has reached a well-being that in income and population,"nearly one-fifth of the previous state is superior."
In the methods of administrative influence on the population began to practice so some softness, especially compared to the exacting and cruelty of the administration during the German regime. No less success made under Elizabeth and the conquest of the land nobility and peasant labor. Generous distribution of estates Life Campanians, favorites and their families, as well as a well-deserved and undeserved statesmen significantly extended the breadth of serfdom, which, according to the decree of March 14, 1746, the ban does not nobles"buy people and peasants without land and land" and Get in the landmark instructions 1754 and decree 1758, even retroactively, became the exclusive privilege of the nobility. A number of measures increased the severity of the most serfdom. Eliminating already at the moment of accession of Elizabeth to the throne of the peasantry from the oath, the government has thus looked upon them as slaves, and later vigorously pursued this look in practice.
Decree of July 2, 1742 forbade the landlords to the peasants on their own to join the military service, thus taking away from them the only opportunity to get out of serfdom and mezhevaya instruction of the same year ordered all commoner, illegitimate and freedmen record or in suburbs, or soldiers or the landlords, threatening otherwise referring to the settlement in the Orenburg region, or return to work in state factories. Most landowners rights over the peasants were significantly increased decrees December 4, 1747, May 2, 1758 and December 13, 1760 For the first nobility could sell serfs and peasants to return to the army, which legalized trafficking, and to take the already wide dimensions; the second authorized the landowners to observe the behavior of their serfs, and the third gave them the right to refer delinquent peasants and domestics in Siberia, with offsetting treasury exiled for recruits, and this gave the landlord tyranny as it official.
Measures such as permission to peasants whose they were, by decree of 1745, trade in the villages and goods, by decree of 13 February 1748, to join the merchants, on condition of payment of taxes merchant along with the payment of the poll tax and dues, of course, do not contradict the general direction of the legislation, as provided farmers incentives to improve their economic condition, thus were profitable for landlords.
Material well-being of the nobility was generally important facility for the immediate concern of the government. Thus, according to the decree of May 7, 1753, was established by the noble Bank in St. Petersburg, with a branch in Moscow, providing cheap credit nobles (6% per year) in fairly large amounts (up to 10,000 p.). With the same purpose has been made according to the instructions May 13, 1754, a general survey, however, met the nobility very hostile and therefore soon suspended. Making serfdom aristocratic privilege and gives almost the same character of the civil service, government Elizabeth has taken steps to transform the nobility into a closed class. Since 1756 a number of decrees of the Senate determined that a noble lists may be amended only by persons who have presented evidence of his noble origin. On this basis it has begun to make a 1761 new genealogy book.
Senate Order 1758 - 1760 years. even more sharply to stand apart from the hereditary nobility personal, not depriving the nobility produced in the chief officer ranks - that from the time of Peter the Great gave them the nobility - the right to own populated estates. Government activities, Elizabeth, pursuing seemed national tasks, the division of Russia in 1757 to 5 districts from which recruits were taken one by one in 4 years on the 5th, and the establishment in 1743 of 15-year term for the production of audits tax-paying population too, were in fact the color of estates and decrees themselves motivated primarily by the interests of the landowners. Even the largest financial reform reign - the abolition in 1754 of internal customs, in which Soloviev saw the destruction of the last traces of the specific time - it was considered the initiator, P.I. Shuvalov, with caste-noble point of view: from its implementation it waiting for favorable development for the nobility of the peasant trade. Especially strikingly caste aristocratic government policies Elizabeth impact on activities of the institution, created seemed solely in the interests of the merchants. Open to the needs of the latter in 1754 commercial or"Copper" bank in practice provided a loan of almost one noblemen, starting with the highest officials and ending with the officers of the Guards.
Thanks brothers Razumovsky, I bow to the memory of Art. Jaworski, the higher level of the hierarchy is now occupied persons imbued with hatred for enlightening aspirations of Theophanes Prokopovich, reigned unchallenged in the Synod at Anna Ivanovna. There are a number of preachers who Munnich and Ostermann saw emissaries of Satan sent to destroy the Orthodox faith. In this field more than any other distinguished abbot of the monastery Sviyazhsky Dm. Cross sections and Ambrose Yushkevich. Such an attitude to"the Germans" and"German" culture is bound to show up on the case. Get their hands on censorship, the Synod presented to the highest signature, in 1743, a draft decree banning the import of Russian books without prior consideration. Rebelled against it vigorously Bestuzhev-Rumin, but Elizabeth did not follow his advice, and such works as the book Fontenelle"On the set of the Worlds" and published under Peter the Great"Featrona or historical Shame", translated by G. Buzhanskogo become subject to the prohibition . But expensive for the Synod of the book"Stone of Faith" was printed.
Some of the bishops disapproved not only to secular science, but also to educate the church. Archangel archbishop Varsonofy expressed, for example, against big school built in Arkhangelsk, on the grounds that the school de-loved bishops cherkasishki. When among the dissenters increased fanatical self-immolation, such pastors could only apply to government authorities. Last, in the face of the Senate, aware abnormally low level of education among the clergy and something done to his raise. This level is clearly evident in the position which took the Synod on the issue of mitigation of criminal penalties when the decrees of 1753 and 1754. Held on the personal initiative of the Empress, was abolished the death penalty and torture by Korchemnaya Affairs, the Senate presented a report on the release of torture offenders under 17 years of age, but rebelled against the members of the Synod, proving that the infancy, according to the teachings of the Holy Fathers, considered up to 12 years; they forgot that the decision, to which they referred, referred to the population of the southern countries, much earlier northerners reach adulthood.
Dictate the most noble interests of educational activities of the government of Elizabeth, however, played an important role in the assimilation of Russian Western culture, which were powerful agents of Academy, the University and the first public theater opened at the initiative of the Treasury Volkov and Sumarokova in 1756 exclusively by state the interests of the government led by Elizabeth only in the suburbs, and foreign policy. The first New Russia, due to serious disturbances of the Bashkirs, was converted in 1744 in the Orenburg province, which includes more Ufa province and county Stavropol current Samara province. Calming foreigners, settling edge Russian and dispensation of his fell to the talented and honest Neplueff. Conscientious administrator, in the face of the victim in the case of Volyn, Soymonova had and Siberia, where he also went unrest among the natives. Chukchi and Koryak threatened in the vicinity of Okhotsk even complete destruction of the Russian settlers. Sends against them troops met fierce resistance, and Koryak, for example, chose in 1752 to voluntarily burn themselves in a wooden prison than surrender Russian.
Inspires more fear even Little Russia, where strong discontent spread control established by Peter the Great Little Russian Collegium. Having visited Kiev in 1744, Elizabeth decided to calm the population, restore hetman. Elected at the insistence of the government of Hetman K. Razumovsky, however, understood that the time had already passed the Hetman, and therefore insisted on the transfer of cases closed college Senate, from which was directly depend on the city of Kiev.
The end of Zaporizhzhya Sich and since the reign of Elizabeth vigorously continued challenge in the southern Russian steppes new colonists. In 1750 was founded in the current series of Kherson province called New Serbia settlements of Serbs, two of which were Hussars. Later, in the current Ekaterinoslav province there are new Serb settlements, called the Slavic-Serbian. Near the fortress of St. Elizabeth formed a settlement of the Polish Little Russians, Moldovans and splitters, initiating Novoslobodskaya line. Thus, Zaporozhye gradually spans the second term Novorussia. In foreign policy, the government of Elizabeth in general keep the way, partly indicated by Peter the Great, partly depended on the then position of the main Western European countries.
Upon accession to the throne of Elizabeth found Russia in the war with Sweden, and heavily influenced by hostile Austria. World in Abo in 1743 gave Russia Kyumenegorskuyu province, but it turned Holstein party military aid has led to the fact that the heir to the Swedish throne was declared Adolf Friedrich, Uncle heir Elizabeth. Lestocq arrest in 1748 eliminated the court of the French influence, which also supports a Shuvalov. Has achieved eminence Bestuzhev-Rumin was reducing the"system of Peter the Great," which he saw in friendship with England and in alliance with Austria. At the request of the first Russia took part in the War of the Austrian Succession. The rapid rise of Prussia gave rise, meanwhile, rapprochement rival before the time with each other in Austria and France, which led to the drawing up of the coalition, which included Russia.
In the opened against Frederick II in 1757 war, Russian troops played a major role conquer Eastern Prussia with Konigsberg, but the death of Elizabeth did not allow to consolidate the land of Russia. (S. Ascension)
Elizabeth died Jan. 5, 1762 (December 25, 1761 under Old Style).
"Lively and fun, but keep an eye on itself, with a large and well-proportioned, with a beautiful round face and ever-blooming, she liked to impress, and knowing that it is particularly suit, she set at the court masquerades without masks, where men had come in full female attire, in the vast skirts, ladies and men in court dress.
The most legitimate of all the successors and successor of Peter 1, but raised to the throne of bayonets rebellious Guards, she inherited the energy of his great father, built palaces in twenty-four hours and then drove two days journey from Moscow to St. Petersburg, regularly pay for each ride a horse.
Peaceful and carefree, she was forced to fight almost half of his reign, won the first strategy of the time of Frederick the Great, took Berlin, packed abyss soldiers in the fields Zorndorf and Kunersdorf ...".
"When two great wars of the coalition, debilitating Western Europe seemed to Elizabeth with his 300,000th army could become vershitelnitsey European destinies; map of Europe lay in front of her at her disposal, but she rarely looked into it that the end of life was sure opportunities to travel to England by land - and she also founded the first real university in Russia - Moscow.
Lazy and capricious, frighten any serious thoughts abhor to any business occupation, Elizabeth could not enter into complex international relations of contemporary Europe and understand the intricacies of its diplomatic Chancellor Bestuzhev-Rumin.
But in his inner chambers of it creates a special political environment of the retainers and storytellers, gossips, which were headed by an intimate solidarity office where the prime minister was Mavra Shuvalova, the wife of the famous inventor and we schemer, and members consisted Anna Vorontsova, nee Skavronskaya, a relative of the Empress, and some simply Elizabeth I., and which was called the Foreign Minister."All things through it served the Empress" - says a contemporary.
Objects of classes this office were stories, gossip, peaching, all sorts of tricks and harassment court against each other, which gave Elizabeth a great pleasure."
"Elizabeth was a dreamer in his youth and was still a great princess, once in an enchanted slumber signed economic business paper instead of his name Flame AGN words ... come to the throne, she wanted to exercise their girlish dreams into reality magic; endless string pulled performances, pleasure trips , Kurtбg, balls, masquerades, strikes dazzling glitter and glamor to nausea. Sometimes the whole yard was transformed into a theater lobby: every day talking only about the French comedy about the Italian comic opera, and her protector Locatelli, an intermezzo, etc.
But living rooms, where the inhabitants of the palace left the magnificent hall, struck distress, misery situation, sloppiness: doors shall not be shut, the windows of the barrel; water flowed over the wall paneling, the rooms were extremely cheeses; at the Grand Duchess Catherine in the bedroom in the oven huge gaping cracks; near this bedroom in a small breech 17 people crowded household; furniture was so scarce that the mirrors, beds, tables and chairs as needed transported from the palace to the palace, even from St. Petersburg to Moscow, broke, beaten, and as such the laying on temporary sites.
Elizabeth lived and reigned in a gilded poverty; she left behind in the locker room with a little over 15 thousand dresses, two chests of silk stockings, a pile of unpaid bills and unfinished huge Winter Palace, already swallowed up from 1755 to 1761, more than 10 million rubles for our money. Shortly before his death, she wanted to live in the palace; but she was busy in vain to builder Rastrelli hurried to finish, if only her own living rooms. French clothing stores sometimes refused to let go of the palace fashionable goods on credit."
"Elizabeth I was smart and good, but messy and capricious Russian lady 18 in., Which according to Russian tradition, many abused during his lifetime and also the Russian custom all mourned the death." Vasily Klyuchevsky. Russian history. Full course of lectures in 3 books. Vol. 3. - M .: Thought, 1993, p.180 - 181.
"Prince Mikhail Shcherbatov, Captain of the Guards Semenov regiment wrote about the daughter of Peter 1:
"... And this Empress of the female sex in Mladost its beauty was excellent, pious, merciful, compassionate and generous, gifted by nature contented mind; but no education had with nature ... cheerful disposition and eagerly seeking fun, felt her beauty passionate and multiply it by different ornaments; lazy and nedokuchliva to everyone who asks a certain diligence to business ... even and external affairs of state, treatises, for several months, for her to sign the name of laziness, she lay; lyubostrastna luxurious and giving a lot of attorneys their pets, but, however, is that there is always power over them monarch retained. "N. Eidelman Your eighteenth century. Perfect our union ... - M .: Thought, 1991, p. 66.
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