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Hippocrates

Hippocrates (Гиппократ) (about 460 BC, the island of Kos - 377 BC) — the ancient Greek physician, naturalist, philosopher, reformer of ancient medicine.

In the writings of Hippocrates, which became the basis for further development of clinical medicine, reflected an idea of the integrity of the body, an individual approach to the patient and his treatment, the concept of history, the theory of the etiology, prognosis, temperament.

With the name of Hippocrates associated idea of high moral character and ethical behavior pattern doctorru. Hippocrates attributed to the ancient Greek text of the code of ethics of physicians ("Hippocratic Oath"), which became the basis of commitments made after doctors in many countries.

Hippocrates was born on the island of Kos (Southern Sporades archipelago, south-east Aegean) to a family of healers, trace their ancestry to Asclepius - the god of medicine. During his life, Hippocrates traveled, traveled to Greece, Asia Minor, visited Libya and Tauris, founded a medical school at home.

Hippocrates recognized as the founder of medical science. His are the essay "On the air, water and terrain", "Prognostics", "Diet in acute diseases", "epidemic" in two volumes, "Aphorisms", "Reduction of the joints," "Fracture," "The wounds of the head."

Unlike their predecessors, Hippocrates believed that disease is not revealed to the gods, and caused quite understandable reasons, such as environmental exposures. In his book "On Human Nature" Hippocrates hypothesized that health is based on the balance of four bodily juices: blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. Disturbance of this balance causes the disease.

Physician Hippocrates problem seen in the study of the individual patient, to ensure mobilization of the body to restore health. In medical ethics Hippocrates put forward four principles of treatment: do no harm to the patient, contrary to treat the opposite, to help nature, sparing the patient.

Hippocrates established stages of the disease, laid the foundations of ancient surgery, developed ways of dressing, treatment of fractures and dislocations, introduced the concept of medicine history, prognosis, etiology, divided the people in temperament (sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic). His teachings had a great impact on the representation of physicians subsequent periods. The main principles of modern medical ethics is based on the established in antiquity "Hippocratic Oath." (Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius)

More about Hippocrates:

Every doctor, starting his professional career, certainly remembers Hippocrates.

When he gets a diploma, the oath says, consecrated by his name. But another Greek physician - Galen, who lived later Hippocrates, no one else could have such an influence on the formation of European medicine

Hippocrates was born on the island of Kos for 460 years BC The civilization and language of the islands were colonized by the Dorians Ionian Hippocrates belonged to the Asclepiadae - corporations doctors claim that she is descended from Asclepius, the great physician of the Homeric times (Asclepius was seen as a god after Homer.) Do Asclepiadae purely human medical knowledge was passed down from father to son, from teacher to student. Sons of Hippocrates, his son, and many students were doctors.

Asclepiadae Corporation, which also calls Kosskoy school, kept in the V century BC, as well as any cultural corporation at that time, a purely religious forms and traditions, for example, they have adopted the oath, which is closely linked the students with the teacher, with fellow profession. However, the religious nature of the corporation, if it is conditional and required standards of conduct in no way limited the search for truth, which remained a strictly scientific.

Initial medical education Hippocrates received from his father - a doctor Heraclides - and other physicians of the island, then the purpose of the scientific advances in his youth he traveled and studied medicine in different countries in the practice of local physicians and votive tables that are posted everywhere in the walls of the temples of Aesculapius.

The story of his life is little known, there are legends and stories relating to his biography, but they are legendary character. The name of Hippocrates, like Homer, later became the collective name, and many of the works attributed to him about seventy, as revealed in recent times, belong to others, mainly his sons, doctors Thessaly and the Dragon, and his brother-Polybus. Galen, Hippocrates recognized for authentic 11, Albrecht Haller - 18, and Kovner - certainly true of only 8 essays Hippocratic Code. This treatise - "On the Wind" and "On the air, waters and places", "Prognostics", "On a diet in acute diseases," the first and the third of the book "Epidemics", "Aphorisms" (the first four chapters), and finally - surgical treatises "On the joint" and "Change" is a masterpiece of "Collection."

To this list of major works will need to add several essays ethical direction: "The Oath", "Law", "about a doctor," "On blagoprilichnom behavior", "Manual", which at the end of V and the beginning of IV century BC transform scientific medicine Hippocrates, the medical humanism.

During the time of Hippocrates believed that illness sends evil spirits or by witchcraft. Therefore it is his approach to the causes of disease was innovative. He believed that the disease does not send people to the gods, they appear in different, and it is quite natural, reasons.

Hippocrates, the great merit is that he first put the medicine on a scientific basis, bringing it from a dark empiricism and cleared of false philosophies, often contradicts reality, dominating over the trial, the experimental side of things. Despite the medicine and philosophy as two inseparable science, Hippocrates tried them and combine and divide by defining each of its borders.

All literary works vividly displayed brilliant observation of Hippocrates and logical reasoning. All his conclusions are based on careful observations and strictly verified facts, which are generalizations of their own accord, as it were flowing and conclusions. Accurate prediction of the clinical course and outcome of the disease, based on a study of similar cases and examples, Hippocrates was widespread fame during his lifetime. Followers of Hippocrates formed the so-called Kosskuyu school, which flourished for a long time and direction of modern medicine.

Hippocratic writings contain observations on the spread of disease depending on the environmental effects of the atmosphere, seasons, wind, water, and the result - the physiological action of these effects on the healthy human body. In these writings are the data on climate in different countries, in the latter more thoroughly studied meteorology one area of the island, and the dependence of the disease on these conditions. Hippocrates generally divides the causes of diseases into two classes: common adverse effects from climate, soil, heredity and personal - and living conditions, nutrition (diet), age, etc. The normal effect on the body of these conditions is the right mix of juice and that it is health.

In these works primarily affects indefatigable thirst for knowledge. Doctor, especially sizing, and his eyes sharp. He asks, and takes notes. An extensive collection of seven books of the "epidemic" is nothing but a series of notes taken by a doctor at the bedside of the patient. They set out the cases detected during medical bypass and is not classified. This text is often interspersed with some philosophy, not a series of facts concerning the set, like a doctor wrote in passing one of the thoughts that his head was constantly busy.

Here is one of those inquisitive thoughts touched the question of how to examine a patient, and then there is the ultimate, all opened, the exact word that shows much more than a simple observation, and depicting our way of thinking of the scientist: "Examination of the body - the whole thing: it requires knowledge, hearing, smell, touch, language and reasoning."

And here's another argument about the examination of the patient from the first book of the "epidemic": "With regard to all the circumstances in diseases, based on which should establish the diagnosis, then all will know from the general nature of all persons and property of every man, of disease and of the patient of all that is required, and from the one who prescribes, for and from patients or better, or harder to feel, in addition, of the general and the particular status of the celestial phenomena, and of all the country, from habit, from the image of the power of kind of life, from the age of each patient, a patient of his speeches, manners, silence, thoughts, sleep, lack of sleep, dreaming of what and when they emerge from the twitching of itching, of tears, of paroxysms of eruptions from urine from the sputum of vomiting.

Should also look at the changes in diseases, from which in any place, and on deposits, leading to the death or destruction, then - sweat, chills, cold body, coughing, sneezing, hiccups, breath, belching, wind, silent or noisy, the expiration blood, hemorrhoids. For all of these characteristics and the fact that through them there - should conduct research. "

It should be noted extensive range of requirements. On examination, the doctor takes into account not only the patient's condition at the moment, but the former disease and the consequences that they could leave, it is the image of the patient's life and climate habitat. The doctor does not forget that, because the patient is a man like any other, to his knowledge, and it is necessary to know the other people, he explores his thoughts. Even the "silence" for his patient are showing!

An impossible task, which would confuse any mind, devoid of breadth. As we would say today - this is clearly a psychosomatic medicine. Let's just say: this medicine whole person (body and soul), and it is connected to its environment and way of life and to its past. The consequences of this broad approach reflected in the treatment, which will in turn require the patient to have it, under the guidance of a doctor, the whole - body and soul - took part in his recovery. Strictly observing the course of the disease, he attached great importance to the various periods of the disease, especially fever, acute, setting certain days for the crisis, turning the disease, when the body, according to his teaching, will attempt to get rid of indigestion juice.

In other writings of Hippocrates - "On Joint" and "Change" details the operation and surgical interventions. From the descriptions of Hippocrates is clear that surgery in ancient times was at a very high level, were used different tools and techniques bandages applied in medicine of our time.

In the essay "On the diet in acute disease" Hippocrates laid the foundation for sound nutrition and the need to feed the sick, even feverish (which was subsequently forgotten), and to this end has established a diet in relation to the forms of disease - acute, chronic, surgical, etc .

Hippocrates in life knew the height of fame. Plato, who was younger than him for one generation, but his contemporary, in the broad sense of the word, comparing one of his dialogues with other arts medicine, draws a parallel between the Hippocrates of Kos and with the greatest sculptors of his time - Poliklet from Argos and Phidias of Athens.

Hippocrates died about 370 BC in Larissa, in Thessaly, where he and a monument. (Samyn DK 100 great scientists)

More about Hippocrates:

Hippocrates - the famous Greek physician from the island of Kos, b. for 460 BC., d. in 356 BC. at Larissa in Thessaly, where a monument to him, belonged to a well-known in ancient Greece and the immediate family Asclepiadae ancestors had doctors. Initial medical education received from his father - a doctor Heraclides - and other physicians about. Spit, and then, in order to improve the scientific, Hippocrates in his youth he traveled and studied medicine in different countries practice of local physicians and votive tables that are posted everywhere in the walls of the temples of Aesculapius.

The life story of Hippocrates is little known, there are legends and stories relating to his biography, but they are legendary character. Hippocrates name like Homer, later became the collective name, and many works of a large number (72) attributed to him, as revealed in recent times (Galen, Haller, Grunert, Gezer, Leitrim, Kovner, etc.) belong to other authors, mainly his sons, doctors, Thessaly and the Dragon, and his brother Polybus.

Hippocrates, the great merit is that he first put the medicine on a scientific basis, bringing it from a dark empiricism and cleared of false philosophies, often contradicts reality, dominating over the more experienced, the experimental side of things. Despite the medicine and philosophy, as two inseparable science, Hippocrates tried them and match, and divide each defining its boundaries.

All literary works clearly outlines a brilliant observation of Hippocrates and logical reasoning. All his conclusions are based on careful observations and strictly verified facts of generalizations which, like themselves, flowed and conclusions. Accurate prediction of the clinical course and outcome of the disease, based on a study of similar cases and examples was Hippocrates and great fame in his lifetime. Followers of Hippocrates formed the so-called Kosskuyu school, which flourished for a long time and gave the direction of modern medicine.

Among the works included in the collection of the so-called Hippocrates, the most famous following, attributed to nearly all historians of medicine Hippocrates himself: De aere aquis et locis and Epidemiorum libri septem - containing observations on the spread of disease, depending on the external influences of the atmosphere, since, the wind, water, and the results - physiological effect of these influences on the healthy human body. In these writings are the data on climate in different countries, in the latter more thoroughly studied meteorology one area of the island and were in accordance with these disease conditions.

Hippocrates generally divides the causes of diseases into two classes: common adverse effects from climate, soil, heredity and personal - and living conditions, nutrition (diet), age, etc. The normal effect on the body of these conditions causes and proper mixing juices - health. Essay Praenotiones s. Prognosticon is proof of the remarkable observation of Hippocrates, and contains a long series of signs during the course of the disease, based on which you can make a favorable or unfavorable prediction about the outcome of the disease.

Hippocrates knew even then many symptoms that are important for prognosis and diagnosis, and now extensively studied the nature of secretions (sputum, feces, etc.) in various forms of disease, and the patient in the study already enjoyed by such methods as tapping, listening, feeling though, of course, in the most primitive form. Strictly observing the course of the disease, Hippocrates attached special importance to the various periods of the disease, especially fever, acute, setting certain days for the crisis, fracture, disease, where the body, according to his teaching, will attempt to get rid of indigestion juice.

In De fracturis and De articulis and others detailing the operation and surgical diseases. From the descriptions of Hippocrates is clear that surgery in ancient times was very high, were used different tools and techniques dressings, taking place in medicine of our time.

In his work De gatione victus in acutis Hippocrates and others laid the foundation of a rational dietetike and the need to feed the sick, even feverish, which was subsequently forgotten, and with this aim set diet, with respect to the forms of disease - acute, chronic, surgical and etc.

About Hippocrates and "Hippocratic Collection" exists vast literature of russkiyh works deserve special attention: "Essays on the History of Medicine" by S. Kovner (vol. II. Kiev, 1883). Translation of the "Hippocratic Collection" at the latest language has several publications, in Russian. been translated book "On Ancient Medicine" and "Aphorisms." ("Dictionary of Britannica")

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