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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Иван Павлов) (1849-1936) — a Russian[ru] physiologist, the founder of the materialist theory of higher nervous activity, the largest school of physiology today, new approaches and methods of physiological research, USSR Academy of Sciences (1925, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1907, Academician since 1917). Classic works on the physiology of blood circulation and digestion (Nobel Prize, 1904).
Pavlov introduced the practice of chronic experiment to study the activities of practically healthy body. Using his method of conditioned reflexes showed that the basis of mental activity are physiological processes in the cerebral cortex. Pavlov study the physiology of higher nervous activity (2nd signal system, the types of the nervous system, localization of function, system of the cerebral hemispheres, and others) have had a great influence on the development of physiology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy. In the 20's and 30's. repeatedly presented (in letters to the government) against tyranny, violence and suppression of freedom of thought. (Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius).
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 26, 1849.
Pavlov - an outstanding scientist, the pride of Soviet science, "the first psychologist of the world", as called by his colleagues in an international convention. He was awarded the Nobel Prize, he was elected an honorary member of one hundred and thirty academies and scientific societies.
None of the Russian scientists of the time, even Mendeleev, has not received such fame abroad. "This is a star that illuminates the world, shedding light on the still unexplored path", - said of him HG Wells. He was called "a romantic, almost legendary figure", a "citizen of the world."
Ivan Pavlov was born in Ryazan. His mother, Barbara Ivanovna, came from a family of a priest and his father, Peter D., was a priest who served first in the poor parish, but thanks to his pastoral zeal eventually became rector of one of the best temples in Ryazan. From early childhood, Pavlov took over from his father perseverance and constant self-improvement. At the request of his parents attended the basic course Pavlov Theological Seminary, and in 1860 he entered the seminary Ryazan.
There he was able to continue the study of subjects that interested him the most, especially the natural sciences. Seminarian Ivan Pavlov particularly excelled on the part of the natural sciences. Seminarian Ivan Pavlov particularly excelled on the part of the discussions. He was an avid debater for life, did not like to agree with him, and rushed at the enemy, trying to refute his arguments.
In an extensive library of his father once found a book Ivan G. Levy with colorful pictures, once and spread to his imagination. It was named "The Physiology of Everyday Life." Read twice, as taught by his father to do with each book (a rule that in future son had followed religiously), "The Physiology of Everyday Life" so deeply sunk into his soul, and that, as an adult, "the first psychologist of the world" Ivan Petrovich Pavlov each opportunity for memory quoted out entire pages. Samin DK 100 great scientists. - Moscow: Veche, 2000, p. 351 - 352
There is a strong opinion that during the Civil War and War Communism, Pavlov, suffering poverty, the lack of research funding, refused the invitation of the Swedish Academy of Sciences to move to Sweden, where he promised to create the most favorable conditions for life and research, and in the Stockholm surroundings was planned built on Pavlov request such an institution what it wants. Pavlov said that from Russia, he will not leave. It denied the historian VD Esakov who found and published the correspondence Pavlova with the authorities, which he describes how he was desperately fighting for survival in a hungry Petrograd in 1920.
It negatively assesses the situation in the new Russia, and requests to release him and his colleagues abroad. In response, the Soviet government is trying to take measures to change the situation, but they are not completely successful.
This was followed by a corresponding resolution of the Soviet government, and the Pavlov Institute in Koltushi built near Leningrad, where he worked until 1936.
Being a fan of gymnastics, he organized the "Society of doctors - lovers of exercise and cycling", where he was chairman.
December 10, 1904, IP Pavlov received the Nobel prize.
Ivan Pavlov died February 27, 1936.