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Lewis Carroll (Льюис Кэрролл) (1832-1898) — literary pseudonym of the English writer, mathematics, logic, photographer, philosopher and deacon Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. Zodiac — Aquarius.
The author of popular stories for children «Alisa in the country of miracles» (1865) and «In The world behind the looking-glass» (1871). Carroll's scientific works have anticipated some ideas the mathematical logic.
Lewis Carroll cheshire, England in a large family of the Anglican priest was born on January, 27th, 1832 in Darsberi, a county. Having ended with distinction college Christ Church College of the Oxford university on mathematics and classic languages and having received degree Master of House, Dodzhson has accepted a younger holy order deacon (in clerical Oxford dignity acceptance was an indispensable condition of election in members of college) and became «don» — a member of college of Church Christ's which remained till the end of a life. Duties of a member of college were not especially burdensome and left a lot of free time with which «don» could fill under own discretion. Dodzhson preferred to spend long hours behind a desk, being engaged in literary creativity.
The publisher of magazines and writer Edmund Jets has advised Dodzhson to think up a pseudonym, and in "Diaries" Dodzhson there is a record from February, 11th 1865: «Has written to Mr. Jetsu, having offered it on a choice pseudonyms:
The choice has fallen on Lewis Carroll. Since then Charlz Ljutvidzh Dodzhson all "serious" mathematical and logic works were signed the present name, and by all literary — a pseudonym, persistently refusing to recognise identity Dodzhson and Carroll.
In the indissoluble union modest and a little prudish Dodzhson and bright Carroll The first obviously lost to the second: writer Lewis Carroll was the best mathematician and The logician, than Oxford «don» Charlz Ljutvidzh Dodzhson.
Mathematical works Dodzhson have not left some an appreciable track in mathematics history. Its mathematical formation was settled by knowledge of several books of "Beginnings" of the Ancient Greek mathematician of Euclid, bases of linear algebra, a calculus and a probability theory; it was explicitly insufficiently for work on "first line" of a mathematical science of 19 centuries, worrying rapid development phase (the theory of the French mathematician of Galois, not Euclidean geometry of Russian mathematician Niklaja Ivanovicha Lobachevsky and Hungarian mathematician Janusha Bojjai, the mathematical physics, the qualitative theory of the differential equations, etc.).
Full isolation Dodzhson from the scientific world affected and in essence: not including short visits to London, Bath and to sisters, Dodzhson all time spent in Oxford, and only in 1867 customary way of his life has been broken by a trip to far Russia (impressions of this trip Dodzhson has stated in well-known «Russian diary»). Recently mathematical inheritance Dodzhson draws the increasing attention of the contributors discovering its unexpected mathematical finds, and remained not claimed.
Reachings Dodzhson in the field of a mathematical logic have much more anticipated time. It has developed the graphic technics of a solution of the logic problems, more convenient, than diagrammes of the mathematician, the mechanic, the physicist and astronomer Leonarda Euler or English logician John Venna. Special art Dodzhson has reached in a solution so-called «sorit». Litters is the logic problem representing a chain of syllogisms, at which the excepted inference of one syllogism serves as premise of another (besides the remained premises are intermixed; "litters" in a Greek way "heap") means. The reachings in the field of mathematical logic Ch. L. Dodzhson has stated in two-volume "Symbolical logic" (the second volume has been discovered recently in the form of proofs in archive of scientific opponent Dodzhson) and — in the facilitated variant for children — in «Logic game».
The unique originality kerrollovskogo style is caused triunity it Literary gift of thinking of the mathematician and the refined logic. Contrary to To popular belief in as if Carroll along with Edward Lirom can To be considered as the founder «nonsense poetry», Lewis Carroll actually Has created other genre of "the paradoxical literature": its heroes do not break logic, and On the contrary, follow it, leading up logic to the point of irrationality.
Carroll Lewis's the most considerable literary works by right two fairy tales about Alisa — «Alisa in the Country of Miracles» (1865) and «Through the Mirror are considered also that there has seen Alisa» (1871), usually for brevity named «Alisa in The world behind the looking-glass». Courageous experiments with language, set affected in fairy tales about Alisa thin logic and philosophical problems, a polysemy («polysemous») Expressions of characters and situations do "children's" products Carroll Favourite reading of "grey-haired wise men».
Lines unique Carroll style are clearly notable and in others Carroll's products: "Silvi and Bruno", "Hunting for the Snark", "Midnight Problems", "Histories with small knots", "That the turtle has told Ahill", "Allen Brown and Carrhae", "Evklid and its modern contenders", letters to children.
L.Carroll was one of the first English pictorialists. Its works differ Naturalness and poetry, especially pictures of children. On the well-known to the international exhibition of a photo "Human race" (1956) English photographers 19 centuries have been presented by a unique picture of work of Lewis Carroll.
In Russia Carroll uses wide popularity from the end of the last century. Fairy tales about Alisa repeatedly (and with various success) were translated and retold on Russian, in particular, by Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov. But one of the best transfers was carried out by Boris Vladimirovich Zakhoder. The histories which have been thought up Carroll, love not only children, but also adults.
An interesting historical fact:
In times of Carroll's opium called laudanum (Laudanum), and many people took this alcohol opium tincture even with lung ailments, headaches. They have a relationship. Not escaped this fate and the English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll. He had been suffering from very severe migraines. Therefore, many believed that Lewis took laudanum, as he eased the pain. Moreover, from early childhood the writer suffered from stuttering, which greatly worried him. The drug "helps" Carroll cope with this complex, soothed him and at the same time gave assurance. Whatever the true reason, one thing is certain: Carroll was under the influence of drugs. One needs only to read his "Alice in Wonderland." (Ju. A. Danilov)
Lewis Carroll died On January, 14th, 1898, Gilford, a county Surrey, England. He was buried there, along with his brother and sister in the cemetery of Ascent.
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