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Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаил Васильевич Ломоносов) (1711-1765) — the first Russian natural scientist of world importance, the poet, who laid the foundations of the modern Russian literary language, artist, historian, advocate the development of national education, science and economy.
Mikhail Lomonosov was born on November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 in the village of Denisovka (now the village University) in the family of the White Sea. At age 19, went to study (from 1731 to the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy in Moscow, from 1735 at the Academic University in St. Petersburg, in 1736-41 in Germany). Since 1742 Associate, since 1745 the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
In 1748 the Academy of Sciences Lomonosov founded the first Russia[ru] laboratory. At the initiative of Lomonosov Moscow State University was founded (1755).
Discovery of Mikhail Lomonosov enriched many branches of knowledge. Developed the atomic-molecular understanding of the structure of matter. During the period of the caloric theory maintained that heat is due to the motion of corpuscles. Formulated the principle of conservation of matter and motion. Rule of phlogiston number of chemical agents. Laid the foundations of physical chemistry. Investigated the atmospheric electricity and gravity. Put forward the theory of color. He created a number of optical devices. Opened to the atmosphere of Venus.
Mikhail Lomonosov described the structure of the Earth, explained the origin of many minerals and minerals. Published guidance on the steel industry. He emphasized the importance of the study of the Northern Sea Route and the development of Siberia. As a proponent of deism, materialistically considered natural phenomena.
Mikhail Lomonosov also the author of books on Russian history, criticized the Norman theory. The great Russian poet and educator 18., One of the founders of the syllabic-tonic versification. Creator of Russian philosophical odes and high civic sound. Author of poems and poetic messages of tragedies satyr, fundamental scientific and philological works of Russian grammar. Revived the art of mosaic tesserae and manufacture, has created a mosaic pictures with the students. Member of the Academy of Fine Arts (1763). He was buried in St. Petersburg in the necropolis of the 18th century.
Mikhail Lomonosov proposed organization of Moscow University (1754).
Another Mikhail Lomonosov:
Pushkin said about it is wonderful, or rather all the "Lomonosov was a great man. Between Peter I and Catherine II, he is one distinctive associate education. He created the first university he should say, he was our first university ".
In the view of many people Lomonosov - the son of a poor fisherman Pomeranian, lost in the snow village, driven by a thirst for knowledge, throws everything and goes to Moscow to study. In fact, it is more legend than a true story. His father was a famous Basil Dorofeevich in Pomorie man, the owner of the farm from several fishing vessels and a successful merchant. He was one of the most educated people of those places, because once studied for the priesthood in Moscow. It is known that he had a large library.
Mother of Mikhail Lomonosov - Helena Ivanovna was the daughter of a deacon. It is the mother unfortunately died early, taught his son to read at a young age and instilled a love of the book. Especially loved the young man grammar Melentie Smotritsky, syllabic verse in Psalms Simeon of Polotsk, and arithmetic Magnitsky.
So, going to Moscow in 1730, Michael Lomonosov was not at all ignorant. He already had the maximum possible in places education, which enabled him to go to the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy - the first higher education institution in Moscow.
Here, Michael has studied Latin, politics, rhetoric, and partly philosophy. About his life of this first school period Lomonosov wrote I.I. Shuvalov in 1753: "Having one day hit the jackpot in salary, it was impossible to have a day to feed more like a coin in the coin of bread and kvas, etc. on paper, footwear and other needs. Thus I lived five years (1731-1736), and Science did not leave. ".
Fluke - a challenge in 1735 from the Moscow Academy of the Academy of Sciences of 12 talented students - decided the fate of Mikhail Lomonosov. Three of these students, including Michael, were sent in September 1736 in Germany, in the University of Marburg, the "glorious" while Professor Wolf, the famous German philosopher. Lomonosov studied under Wolf mathematics, physics and philosophy. Then he went back in Freiberg, a professor Henkel - chemistry and metallurgy. Along with honorable mention of Michael's activities abroad, its leaders have repeatedly written about the chaotic life, which ended for the University in 1740 in Marburg marriage with Elizabeth, Christina Zilch, the daughter of a deceased member of the City Council.
Disorderly life, debauchery, debt, moving from town to town was not only a consequence of nature nutty University, but also meet the general nature of what was then a student's life. The German student days, he found that passion and poetry, which has resulted in two odes sent to them from abroad to the Academy of Sciences in 1738 - "Ode Fenelon" in 1739 - "Ode to capture Hawtin." To the latter he made a "Letter of the rules of Russian versification." The two odes, in spite of their great importance in the history of Russian poetry have been published at the time and served as the only proof of the Academy of Sciences of University of literary abilities. Meanwhile, with the "Ode to capture Hawtin" and "Letters on the rules of Russian poetry" begins the story of our new poetry.
In general, the work of Mikhail Lomonosov in Russian literature are significant. He reformed the Russian verse, laying the foundations for the development of modern poetry. His observations in the field of language were the start of a Russian literary language of a secular character. To bring order to the literary language, Mikhail Lomonosov distributed its entire vocabulary of the three groups - calm, associating with each of them a certain literary genres. Hence, the proceeds received in the Russian literary definition of comedy as a genre of low and tragedy - as high.
In 1741, Mikhail Lomonosov returned to their homeland. Despite the odes, translations of foreign-academics, student Lomonosov got no place, no salary. Only with the ascension to the throne of Elizabeth, in January 1742, Lomonosov was designated an associate of the Academy of physics.
In 1743, the Academy of History Department and any historic meeting in the meetings which led the fight against the Lomonosov Miller, accusing him of deliberately maligned Slavs. And soon Lomonosov due to "insolence" disobedience Conference of the Academy and frequent quarrels with the Germans in a drunken state, more than seven months' kept under guard. "He remained for a year without pay, to requests for compensation for food and medicine only got permission to take academic publications in 80 rubles.
In 1745, Mikhail Lomonosov, filed a petition for determination of his professor of chemistry. Appointment to the academy - a professor of chemistry - coincided with the arrival of his wife from abroad. Four years later they had a daughter Elena. Since that time sufficiently secured and quiet life University, blooms its scientific activities.
Like many scientists of the time, Mikhail Lomonosov "tried everything and everyone came through," in the words of Pushkin. But his most important discoveries related to chemistry, physics, and astronomy. They have decades of work ahead of Western scientists, but often remain unnoticed by the European science, do not attach special importance to the development of accurate knowledge in a barbaric country, which they considered Russia.
Leonhard Euler was perhaps the only contemporary of his, who realized the extent of his mind and appreciated the depth of his generalizations. Paying tribute to Lomonosov, Euler noted his "felicity to expand the limits of the true knowledge of nature ...".
Thanks to the attention of Euler in the early 1748 Lomonosov made buildings and equipment by its drawings of the chemical laboratory of the Academy of Sciences, where, in particular, began to produce analyzes of samples of various ores and minerals. These samples he received from the mining plants and of prospectors from all over Russia.
Physical and chemical experiments, which were conducted Mikhail Lomonosov in his lab were of high accuracy. Once he has done such an experience: weighed sealed glass jar with lead plates calcined it, and then weighed again. The plates were covered with oxide, but the total weight of the vessel is not changed. Thus was discovered the law of conservation of matter - one of the basic laws of nature. Printed publication of the law was followed 12 years later, in 1760 in his dissertation, "Discourse on the hardness and liquid bodies." In the history of the law of conservation of energy and mass Lomonosov rightfully belongs to the first place.
Mikhail Lomonosov, the first to formulate the main provisions of the kinetic theory of gases, the opening of which is usually associated with the name of Daniel Bernoulli. Lomonosov believed that all bodies are composed of tiny moving particles - atoms and molecules, which when heated bodies move faster, and cooling - slowly.
He expressed the correct guess about the vertical currents in the atmosphere, correctly pointed to the electrical nature of auroras and estimated their height. Lomonosov attempted to develop a theory of the ether electrical phenomena and thought about the connection between electricity and light, which would detect experimentally. In the epoch of the corpuscular theory of light, he openly supported the wave theory of "Gugeniya" (Huygens), and developed an original theory of colors.
Along with him was engaged in the study of electricity his friend - a German scientist Georg Richman. These studies ended sadly - to conduct experiments with lightning during a thunderstorm, Richman died in 1753.
University research interests concerned the most unexpected areas, and even brought him to the area of Fine Arts. In the early fifties Lomonosov is particularly interested in mosaics, glass and bead mills. It was Mikhail Lomonosov we owe the birth of Russian mosaic and a true masterpiece - the famous mural, made at the Lomonosov factory and dedicated to the Battle of Poltava. In 1753, Lomonosov was given the privilege to base factory mosaics and beads and 211 showers Koporskiji land in the county.
The scientist had many enemies and envious, which were headed by the all-powerful Schumacher. Fortunately, he found a patron Shuvalov. After Shuvalov Lomonosov had the opportunity to put into practice important plans, such as the base in 1755, the University of Moscow, for which Lomonosov wrote the initial draft, based on the "legitimized institutions, customs and habits of foreign universities.
In 1757, Mikhail Lomonosov became Chancellor, that is, in modern terms, the vice-president of the Academy of Sciences. In the same year he moved to an apartment in the breech of academic own home, surviving on the Sink to 1830.
In 1759, M. Lomonosov studied the device and drawing up the charter school for her and the University of the Academy, and all the forces defended the rights of the lower classes to education and objected to the voice of a "Where to learned men?". Learned men, according to the Lomonosov need "to Siberia, of Mining, factories and preservation of the people, architecture, justice, correction of manners, the merchants, the unity of pure faith, and prescient agriculture weather, military, travel north and messages from the Orient."
According to the geographical department of Lomonosov engaged in collecting information about Russia.
In 1761, Mikhail Lomonosov followed the passage of Venus between the Earth and the Sun. This is a very rare phenomenon observed by scientists of many countries, specially arranged for this distant expedition. Such observations of Venus made it possible to clarify the magnitude of the distance from the Earth to the Sun. But Lomonosov, at his home in St. Petersburg, watching a small tube, made a great discovery that Venus has an atmosphere, it seems, is more dense than Earth's atmosphere. One of the discoveries would be enough to name University survived for centuries.
In an effort to equip the best instrument astronomers to penetrate into the depths of the universe, Mikhail Lomonosov, created a new type of reflective reflecting telescope. In telescope Lomonosov was only one mirror placed with a slope - it gave a more vivid image of the object, because the light is not lost as the reflection from the second mirror.
Far ahead of contemporary science, Lomonosov first scientist to figure out that the surface of the Sun is a raging fire an ocean in which even the "stones as water, boil". Mystery during Mikhail Lomonosov was and the nature of comets. Lomonosov made a bold idea that the tails of comets are formed under the influence of electric power from the sun. Later it was found that the formation of comet tails do participate sunlight.
After accession to the throne of Catherine II, in 1762 , Lomonosov wrote "Ode", in which he compared with the new Empress Elizabeth and expect that Catherine II «golden age of science rises up and save with contempt beloved Russian generation».
His hopes were fulfilled. In 1764, was equipped expedition to Siberia, under the influence of the works of Lomonosov: "On the move to North East India Siberian Ocean ."Back in 1742, when Mikhail Lomonosov was admitted to the Academy of Sciences, he began writing a lot of work on mining , but numerous other academic duties delayed completion of the work. He published " The Fundamentals of Metallurgy and Mining" only in 1764.
In his book, Lomonosov gave a description of ores and minerals by their external characteristics, described the occurrence of ores, pointed out how the pieces of ore, found in a creek or river, you can get to the core. He drew attention to the importance searchers ore painting rocks. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov correctly explained that the minerals are colored by the presence of iron oxides, copper, lead and other metals is very valuable indication of the scientist was a "satellite" ores. For example, he reported that the sulfur and arsenopyrite accompany gold, bismuth occurs together with tin, etc.
Book Mikhail Lomonosov was the first practical guide to search for ores, based on strict scientific observation has been circulated by the mines and was instrumental masters of Russian mountain-searchers ore that opened a lot of new deposits in the Urals, Altai and Nerchinsky territory.
However, Lomonosov was not limited to practical information. He believed that the Prospector for success in the work necessary to know how and under what conditions they formed sought out minerals. So the book was attached a great job Lomonosov "On the Layers of the Earth", which marked the beginning of geological science in our country. Scientist set out in it his views on the structure of the Earth's crust, the origin of rocks and fossils found in them, and minerals on the formation of the mountains, the reasons for moving the land and the sea, etc.
The views Lomonosov far ahead of his time. For example, Mikhail is one of the first to realize the value of the internal forces in the formation of the Earth's topography.
In Lomonosov's time, many researchers do not yet understand the significance of the fossils found in the earth - the remains of animals and plants. Some scientists consider them a "game of nature," or believed that the fossilized shells of animals were brought to the land during the "deluge" of which the Bible speaks.
Mikhail claimed that the remains of extinct animals are found where these animals live. If fossilized sea shells found on the ground, it means that this land was once the bottom of the sea.
Mikhail Lomonosov, the first to understand that animals and plants are distant geological epoch not only survived in the form of individual fossils, but also participated in the formation of some of the layers of the earth, such as seams of coal. He correctly explained the formation of humus, linking it with the accumulation of humus in the soil - residues of dead, decaying plants and animals. The thought of Lomonosov in the XIX century was developed and confirmed in studies of black earth V.V. Dokuchaev, who founded a new science - soil science.
At the time, scientists believed coal rock, impregnated with some "coal juice." This opinion was shared by some geologists even at the beginning of the XIX century. Meanwhile, in the XVIII century Lomonosov argued that fossil coal, like peat, formed from plant debris covered later strata of rocks. It should be noted that Mikhail Lomonosov first pointed to the formation of oil from the remains of organisms. This idea has received confirmation and recognition only in the XX century.
Through the Office of the Academy of Sciences Lomonosov appealed also to the miners of a request to send him samples of ores. Some of the miners immediately began to assemble collections of minerals and ores at their sites and send them to St. Petersburg.
Premature death prevented Mikhail Lomonosov finish a great job of collecting and processing of minerals in our country. University plan was implemented later followers of the great scientist - academics V.M. Severgin and N.I. Koksharov.
In June 1764, Catherine II visited the home of University and spent two hours watching the "work of mosaic art, contraption Lomonosov physical tools and some physical and chemical experiments." When leaving the Empress Lomonosov gave her poems.
All my life I worked as a scientist at the limit, studied and sat for books not hours - day. On the last years of his life niece told Matrona Evseevna: "Sometimes, my heart, so read out the written so that a week does not drink or eat anything except the March of beer with a slice of bread and butter." Reflections and ardor of imagination University did in old age is extremely diffuse. It is often during lunch instead of a pen, which is on the school habit like putting his ear, put a spoon, which slurped hot, or wipes away his wig, who shot himself with, when taken to be soup. "Rarely, happened, he would write the paper to not overwhelm her with ink instead of sand".
But he still was not distracted armchair eccentric. Large, full later, and at the same time, fast, strong, had a temper, though kind and cheerful, but the steep, short-tempered to rage. Once conceived to rob three sailors on Vasilevsky Island, Lomonosov was in such anger that one laid unconscious, the other with a broken face to flight, and the third has decided to rob himself: he took off his jacket, jacket, trousers, tied the knot and brought "production of "home.
At the end of the life of Mikhail Lomonosov was elected an honorary member of the Stockholm and Bologna Academies. Becoming a recognized already surrounded by honor, their habits Lomonosov did not change. Careless in dress, wearing a white blouse with an open collar, a Chinese robe and could take an important dignitary, and sit up with countryman-arhangeltsem a mug of cold beer, because "this drink is bestowed directly from the ice".
The end of life Lomonosov did not stop to help their family, caused them to St. Petersburg and corresponded with them. A letter to my sister Mikhail Lomonosov, written a month before his death, on April 4, 1765.
He died by accident, from trifling spring cold. Funeral scientist at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery different pomp and crowded. (Samyn D.K. 100 great scientists. - Moscow: Veche, 2000)
Another Mikhail Lomonosov:
Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasilyevich - one of the greatest Russian poets and scholars. It is already well aware of the best of his contemporaries. "It is our country Malgerb, he - like Pindar" - wrote his poems, even his enemies. "All scientific memoir University - not just good, but even excellent," - says his famous Euler scientific papers. They, like Derzhavins, were read almost up to the Pushkin. "I respect a great man in Lomonosov, but certainly not a great poet," wrote Pushkin. "Between Peter I and Catherine II, he is one distinctive associate education. He created the first university, it is better to say, he was the first to our university".
In making the great achievements in the history of Mikhail Lomonosov and Russian Science of Russian education, his work as "the Russian Pindar," Pushkin said nothing. "Ode to it ... tedious and inflated. His influence on literature was harmful and so far it is revoked. Grandiloquence, sophistication, turning away from the simplicity and accuracy, the absence of any nationality and originality - that the traces left by Lomonosov. "Extreme of this review elsewhere is tempered by Pushkin himself: he speaks of the ethnic language University, the high poetic quality of his spiritual one, which "will remain an eternal monument of Russian literature".
Belinsky finally restored the glory swayed University as a poet. Calling look at Pushkin State University "surprisingly true, but one-sided," Belinsky points to the great importance of poetry University in the general historical course of our literary development. "In times of Governors - said Belinsky - we did not need to folk poetry, then the great question - to be or not to be - for us not to lay a nation, and Europeanism... Lomonosov was Peter the Great of our literature... Without attributing does not belong to him titlos poet, one can not see that he was a great poet, versifier... This is not enough: some verses University, despite their pompous and declamatory tone zips sometimes poetic feeling - a reflection of his poetic soul...
The metric espoused Lomonosov our poetry, there is great merit in his hand: it is akin to the spirit of the Russian language and in itself was of his power... Lomonosov was the first founder of Russian poetry and the first poet of Russia".
Indeed, in the case of the common spiritual - and together, and literary - the revival of Russian Lomonosov was the immediate successor of Peter the Great. Their various scholarly works, as his poetic works, Lomonosov gave the reforms of Peter the living, the actual application in the field of literature and science. Son of the White Sea peasant fisherman, 20-year-old "fool" somehow got into the school, Lomonosov further their activities in the same time acts physicist, chemist, geologist, poet, orator, linguist, historian, even a publicist. To implement the ideas of Peter in Lomonosov there were gigantic forces.
On the first years of the life of Mikhail Lomonosov are extremely scarce information. He was born 8 (20) in November 1711, in the village of Denisovka, Arkhangelsk region, Kholmogorsky County, a peasant, a fairly well-off family. His father was engaged in fishing and often commit big sea travel. Mother Lomonosov, who died very early, was the daughter of a deacon. Father, son to recall, was at heart a good man, but "in extreme ignorance bred".
Of the two stepmothers Lomonosov second was "angry and jealous." The best moments in my childhood Misha University were, apparently, of his trip with his father at sea, leaving its indelible mark on the soul. Often dangerous voyage physical strength tempered boys and enriched his mind a variety of observations. Effect of the nature of the Russian North is easily seen not only in the language of Governors, but in his research interests, "questions of the northern lights, heat and cold, sea travel, sea ice, reflection, sea life on the land - all this goes far deeper, in the first impressions of the young White Sea"... (Vernadsky "Lomonosov Collection», II, 144).
He was surrounded by stories about the great deeds of Peter the Great, and which hitherto little remained in the north. More from Lomonosov mother learned to read and was hunting for reading and later it seems, was supported in its pomors-examined. Early, apparently, was born in Lomonosov consciousness of the necessity of "science" of knowledge. "Gates scholarship" for him made them books procured from somewhere, "Grammar" Smotritsky, "Arithmetic" Magnitsky, "Verse Psalms" Simeon of Polotsk.
In Moscow Lomonosov left with the knowledge of his father, one of the local farmers even vouched for his contribution in taxes, but, apparently, his father sent him away for only a short time, then why is it listed as "in hiding."
In the "Saviour's school," ie, the Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, Mikhail Lomonosov joined in 1731 and stayed there for about 5 years. Extant letters to the University II Shuvalov see what physical hardship, what spiritual struggle Lomonosov had to endure during his stay at the academy.
In the scientific sense, it has brought many benefits to Mikhail Lomonosov: he not only acquired a taste for scientific pursuits in general, but learned Latin, read and do with what was then the "science", although in the usual for that time of scholastic form of different "piitik", "Rhetoric "and" philosophies ". Another happy fact of the early life of Lomonosov was a challenge from the Academy of Sciences of 12 outstanding students, "Spassky schools." In 1736, three of them, including the Lomonosov Academy of Sciences have been sent to Germany to study mathematics, physics, philosophy, chemistry and metallurgy.
Abroad Lomonosov spent five years: about 3 years in Marburg, under the guidance of the famous Wolff, and about a year in Freiberg, in Gennelya, he spent a year at level crossings in the Netherlands.
From Germany, Lomonosov made not only extensive knowledge in the field of mathematics, physics, chemistry, mining, but to a large degree, and a general statement of his worldview. The lectures Wolf Lomonosov could work out their views in the area of the then so-called natural law, in matters concerning the state.
In June 1741, Lomonosov returned to Russia and was soon appointed assistant professor of chemistry at the academy. In 1745, he is busy on the resolution of public lectures in Russian, in 1746 - the recruitment of students from seminaries, the multiplication of translated books on the practical application of science. At the same time, Mikhail Lomonosov hard conducts its activities in the field of physics and chemistry, printed in Latin in a long series of scientific treatises.
In 1748, at the Department of History of the Academy there and Historical Collection, the meetings of which Lomonosov soon begins to fight with Miller, accusing him of deliberately downplaying in the research of the Russian people. He presents a series of notes and projects with aim of "bringing the Academy of Sciences in good condition," strenuously pursuing the idea of a "nedobrohotstve scientists foreigners to Russian young people", to his learning.
In 1749, in a solemn meeting of the Academy of Sciences, Lomonosov says, "The word of praise Empress Elizabeth", which took a big hit, this time with Lomonosov starts to use a lot of attention at the Court. He approaches the favorite of Elizabeth I.I. Shuvalov, creating him a lot of envy, which is headed by Schumacher. At the close relationship to the machinations Shuvalov Schumacher made for Lomonosov not terrible, and it takes a great influence in the Academy.
Under the influence of the University is committed to the 1755 opening of the Moscow University, for which he is the original draft, based on the "institutions, by legislation, customs and habits of" foreign universities. Even earlier, in 1753, Mikhail Lomonosov, by Shuvalov, one can make a mosaic factory. In the same year, Lomonosov fussing about the device runs on electricity, the family of the retired professor accident Richman, who "killed thunder"; Lomonosov particularly concerned about the fact that "to this event (death Richman during physical experiments) was not directed resist an increment of the sciences".
In 1756, Mikhail Lomonosov Miller defends against lower-right Russian class on education in high school and university. In 1759, he occupied the device and drawing up the charter school for her and the University of the Academy, with it again, all the forces defending the rights of the lower classes to education, objecting on around him coming a voice, "where scientists from the people? '. Learned men - proves Lomonosov - need "to Siberia, to mountain Affairs, factories and preservation of the people, architecture, justice, correction of manners, merchants, pure unity of faith and prescience agriculture weather, military, travel north and messages from the Orient".
At the same time, the lessons go by University Department of Geography, under the influence of his writings: "On the move north to the East Indies Siberian Ocean" in 1764 expeditions to Siberia... Among these unremitting toil Lomonosov dies, 4 April 1765.
Shortly before the death of Mikhail Lomonosov visited Catherine, "the new file a favored highest assurance of the true Beloved and care about their arts and sciences in the Fatherland" ("St. Petersburg Vedomosti", 1764).
At the end of life Lomonosov was elected an honorary member of the Stockholm and Bologna Academy of Sciences. Lomonosov still married abroad in 1740, in Marburg, to Elizabeth Zilch. Family Life University was apparently quite calm. Of children after the University was only a daughter, Elena, who married Konstantinov, the son of a priest of Bryansk. Her offspring, as sisters and offspring University, in the Arkhangelsk region, there is until now.
Mikhail Lomonosov, is buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Pushkin has emphasized the extraordinary diversity of the works of Lomonosov. "Lomonosov embraced all branches of education. The thirst for knowledge was the strongest passion of this soul, full of passions. Historian, orator, a mechanic, a chemist, mineralogist, artist and poet, he experienced everything and everyone came through. "Difficulty of the University was the fact that he, like Peter the Great, once had to do ten cases - and the "lecture", and "make new experiences" (physics and chemistry), and "speak in public speeches and dissertations", and "compose different poems and projects (labels) to the solemn expressions of joy (for illumination and fireworks)," and "make up the rules of eloquence," and "the history of his country" - and all this in addition "to put a period".
Personal sympathies University seems inclined to physics and chemistry, but his "genius scientist" equally "brilliant" and suffered from it in such treatises as the "Word of the origin of the world" (1756), "The word of the phenomena of air, originating from the electrical power" (1753), and "Russian Grammar" (1755), or in the treatises purely journalistic nature.
To his contemporaries, Mikhail Lomonosov was primarily a poet. The first poetry University were sent by him from abroad, with the "Reports" in the Academy of Sciences: French translation of a poem "Ode Fenelon" (1738) and the original "Ode to capture Khotina" (1739). In fact it started a new Russian literature, the new size of the verse, with a new language, and partly with new content, but the contemporaries of the first ode University did not immediately printed, long, apparently, were not known, and among academics themselves have noted, it seems only one Trediakovsky. The second was made by Lomonosov ode to the "Letter on the rules of Russian versification", where the author opposes Trediakovsky. Tryadyakovsky immediately wrote to the "letter" critical response, but the latter was not sent to the destination of the academic conference "in order to pay for the post is not to lose money in vain". The glory of the poet Lomonosov takes only on his return from abroad, his ode to that time, followed quickly one after the other, at the same time required for it in Russian translations of various "greetings", he wrote in German academic Staehelin. In August 1741 devotes the second ode, and in December of the same year he translates written Staehelin German ode to the new Empress, which says exactly the opposite of what is said in the preceding two odes.
With the accession to the throne of Elizabeth poetic work of Lomonosov put in much happier conditions: his praise made quite sincere. In 1747, after approval by the Empress Elizabeth of a new charter for the Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Fine Arts, Lomonosov wrote an ode to "Joyful shouts and thanksgiving Russian Music," where, in the words Merzliakov, "breathes heavenly passion for science", the poet celebrates the patronage of the Empress arts and sciences together and sings Peter the Great and science, "divine mind pure fruit", here it refers to the new generation of Russian, urging him to enlightenment sciences. Odes welcomes Lomonosov and Catherine II, comparing the new Empress Elizaveta and expressing the hope that Catherine II «golden age of science rises up and save with contempt beloved Russian generation".
He welcomes the initiatives in favor of Catherine Russian education and upbringing. In addition to the solemn one, Lomonosov since 1741 delivers poetic inscription on the illuminations and fireworks, the trigger ships masquerades. He writes on request even tragedy ("Tamira and Selim", 1750; "Demofont," 1752), spending, on each occasion, his basic idea: the need for the Russian education and science. In this respect, with odes University proximally linked and called it "Eulogy" Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth. In essence, this is - the same ode, like other works of Lomonosov Moscow State University, where a number of routine, obligatory flattery, "hazy with incense," glorified "business Petrov" and proved the importance of education in general.
Everywhere we see the author's desire to express one way or another their educational social ideals, to emphasize the tasks of the performance of which depends the happiness of Russia. In what lurks deep thought, often the real indication of what is really needed to Russia (Pypin). In "rifmichestve" Lomonosov often flashed sparks of true, genuine poetry. Most often this happens when the Lomonosov "singing" about the importance of science and education, about the greatness of natural phenomena on religious subjects.
The best poetic works of Lomonosov's spiritual odes. Already by 1743 include the ode: "Evening Meditation on God's Majesty in the case of the great lights" and "Morning Meditation on God's Majesty", full of religious feeling and at the same time showing the scientific interests of the author. "Evening Thoughts" in the words of the University, has his "long-held view that the northern lights motion of ether can be made". Lomonosov was a true poet, and in those cases where the verses concerned "courtesy of the fatherland." It is precisely in his eyes gave his poetic works price, towering over their "poor rhyming."
Generally Lomonosov looked at his poems, mainly from a purely practical, social side, saw in him only the most convenient form for expressing their progressive aspirations. As a juror song creator, Lomonosov considered itself bound, and other forms of poetry: he wrote epigrams, humorous verse plays, satirical works, etc. In the general poverty of the then Russian life, these pieces are sometimes called whole storms spawned a sharp debate. Such a storm - that could be unsafe for the author - caused, for example, until very recently, remained unpublished poem University: "Hymn to the Beard" (1757) - satire, directed not only against dissenters, but also against anyone who, hiding behind the of the church banner "veil of sanctity" was in fact an enemy of knowledge and progress.
The poem University decided it was "under the hand of the executioner gallows burn", as the author himself has been put on the form, which "threaten violent retribution and detractors of the law of faith" ... Poetry University was entirely on the basis of the notorious pseudo-classicism. With the last Lomonosov met in Germany as a theory, then dominant everywhere in Europe. This theory Lomonosov introduced for the emerging Russian literature, where it then prevailed during all the XVIII century. Poetry at the time and in the West did not have an independent right to exist: it is recognized only as entertainment, "resting from affairs", "summer tasty lemonade," or had to bear a purely practical service, literally "learning" society, giving his morals, almost necessary advice and guidance. Added to this the actual relationship of poetry to the court in which the concentrated life of the country. With the same social position, with the same character, "literature" and was in Russia. Lomonosov assimilated whereas the conventional manner of writing, put on a conventional poetic costume.
In the odes of Governors could not be the same grandiloquence, pouty, even adulation, which generally have been required of the then poets. But in the western pseudo-classicism was another, more important aspect . Lozhnoklassicheskie odes and the court and in the community liked not only spilled in them "lily incense", but also the "beauty of the verse". Like Malherbe and Boileau for French literature, Gotshedu - for the German, Russian Lomonosov in the field of poetry is mostly a purely formal reformer: converter literary language and verse, the introducer of new literary forms. He is fully aware that literature can not go forward without a formal correctness in language and verse, without literary forms. Here are aimed purely scholarly works and University related to the field of Russian literary language and Russian poetry. The most important works of this kind were Lomonosov "Russian Grammar" (1755 - 1757), "Discourse on the benefits of church books in the Russian language" (1757), and "Letter on the rules of Russian versification", or "Discourse on our diversification" (1739). To fully appreciate the significance of these works in the history of the development and production of Russian literary language, it is necessary to bear in mind the overall situation, in what was our literary language from the XI century to the end of the XVII- th and especially the era of Peter's reforms.
In ancient literature from the beginning the extremely sharp distinction between the literary language, the language of the "book" and say to the people living, spoken language. This distinction is held until the end of the XVII century, during the seven centuries of Russian language itself has no right to citizenship in the literature, "literary language" is the language of church-Slavic. Only occasionally, inadvertently scribe, living speech of the people inadvertently enters the book as a random, unconscious impurity. The further away, the more acts convention grammatical forms, speed, extreme artificiality of the spelling, style and expression.
Since the XV century in literature developed rapidly characteristic "weaving of words", in the XVI - XVII centuries, it is joined by another notorious Moscow "good word" - extreme verbosity, pretentious and pompous. Since the XVI century in the literary language of Muscovy with particular sharpness begins to manifest influence from western and Polish languages, and the right to Polonism borrowed Ruthenian and Polish words mingled mass Latinisms, which is especially patronized both Academy, Kiev and Moscow, a little later in the set start to penetrate the German word, Dutch, Swedish. With the reforms of Peter the Great in the Russian literary language comes the most chaotic motley mixture completely incoherent mass of raw elements. It was an era full of chaotic fermentation, new elements were rich beginnings of further development, but there was nothing of any slender, organic. Only Mikhail Lomonosov, with his genius was able to sort out the pile completely raw, unprocessed materials; noticing major, major elements, he singled them out of a chaotic mixture and put it in quite those shapely relationship that under his arm gets our written language.
Lomonosov "Russian Grammar" first draws a sharp line between the languages of Russian and Church Slavonic, between conversational speech and "slavenschiznoy"; Church Slavonic language, the language of "religious books" for the first time opposed to Russian language, "civil", live voices of the people, or, expressed as Lomonosov, "simple Russian language", "vulgar words", "ordinary Russian." Recognizing the close interrelation of the two languages, Lomonosov establish full independence of each, and for the first time puts special strictly scientific study of the laws and the Russian form of the language itself. Therein lies the greatest value of philological works of Lomonosov.
To the knowledge of Russian grammar, Mikhail Lomonosov was first used rigorous scientific methods, for the first time specifically and precisely outlining the relationship of the Russian literary language to Church Slavonic, on the one hand, and to the language of the living, spoken language, on the other. Thus he laid a firm foundation to transform Russian literary language, which abruptly turned it on a new road and ensured its further development. Lomonosov was fully aware of the importance of so-called phonetics, the need to go to learn the language of living speech. Methods of scientific research, which should, in philological studies of Russian Lomonosov - techniques naturalist. He bases his conclusions on the nearest, most direct examination of the facts of language: it gives long lists of words and individual expressions of Russian, compare, compare the facts of each other, and only on the basis of such comparisons make conclusions. Generally, in principle, linguistic techniques are the same University, which holds science and now.
By studying the Russian language alive, Mikhail Lomonosov, the diversity of Russian dialects and sub-dialects are reduced to three groups or dialects, "dialects":
Gives strong preference Lomonosov Moscow, "for the importance of not only the capital dialect, but also for its excellent beauty".
Start, which should unite the various dialects of Russian Lomonosov sees in the Church Slavonic language. Language of religious books should serve as the principal means of cleansing the Russian literary language of the influx of foreign words, foreign terms and expressions that are alien to the Russian language, these "wild and strange words absurdities coming in to us from foreign languages". The issue of foreign words seem fairly Lomonosov especially important since a terrible rush in Russian language, for the period of Peter's reforms, foreign words. This is called a special study University: "The benefits of church books in the Russian language." It is mainly devoted to the question of the mutual relations of the elements of the Church Slavonic and Russian literature in the language - a well-known doctrine of "calm".
The degree of influence on the Russian literary language of the Church Slavonic element is obtained, over looking the University, one or the other color in the language, the so-called "style" or "calm". Lomonosov outlines three such tone or "calm", "high", "medium" and "low". The introduction of "calm" part was almost necessary. Go directly to the living language was impossible not only because it would be too drastic innovation, too much "heresy", but also because - and this is important - that the then-living Russian language was not so developed to be a sufficient tool to express new concepts.
The outcome of the difficulty Mikhail Lomonosov found in the average minimum: a simple connection of the Slavic and Russian elements in the introduction of calms, as well as direct borrowings from foreign languages. The apparent preference Lomonosov gave Church Slavonic language, as the language is worked out, and adapted to the "high" style, while in the living Russian language was not in the "means for transmitting an abstract scientific concepts, which were needed for the new literature." Languages Russian and Church Slavic Lomonosov put in too close bond, even as the Russian language would obey Church Slavonic, this was due to the reform in the language generated by Karamzin. - Our newest spelling in the most significant features created by Lomonosov. - Developing, all by itself, the idea of Trediakovsky tonic versification, Lomonosov made in this case poetic talent, which was completely devoid of Tredyakovsky.
"Russian Grammar" University, his "Discourse on the Use of Church Books", "Letter on the rules of Russian versification", together with the practical implementation of these rules in its own "versification" University, once and for all decide the most important issue in our literature, the question can be said to its very existence - the means to a broad and free development, the question that in Italian literature was settled in the XIV century, the French in the XV - XVI centuries, the English and German in the XVI century.
Despite the importance of scientific works of Mikhail Lomonosov in the Russian language in the general academic performance, they were for him, to a certain degree side, his main specialty was science, and the genius of Governors is manifested with even greater power and brilliance. With all the obvious is found only in very recent times, thanks to the numerous detailed studies of a number of specialists. These include, above all, academic publications, "Lomonosov Collection. Materials for the History of Chemistry in Russia "(St. Petersburg, 1801)," Proceedings of the University of Sciences in the field of natural history "(St. Petersburg, 1911, the works collected here B.N. Menshutkina, N.A. Yossi, M. Shokalskogo, Vladimir I. Vernadsky), later academic "Lomonosov Collection" (St. Petersburg, 1911), which placed the study of academician Walden, a professor Kurilova, B.N. Menshutkina, V.I. Vernadsky, the speech read by specialists, naturalists in the ceremonial meeting of the Academy Science November 8, 1911.
"The most successful - says Professor Menshutkina - Mikhail Lomonosov developed two basic questions of physics: the essence of heat and gaseous bodies. According to his mechanical theory of heat, the latter is the invisible inner motion of bodies, namely the movement of their constituent particles, with its Lomonosov satisfactorily explained all the phenomena associated with the heat, and it denies the existence of matter or thermal heating value, which is recognized by all scientists to 60s XIX century. Only after 110 - 120 years after the University began to spread now generally accepted view of heat as the motion of the particles of heat.
Lomonosov was interested not only thunderstorms, but also in meteorology its all quite aware of the importance of weather forecasting and sought to arrange a meteorological station, tried using the self-recording instruments to explore the upper atmosphere: these ideas were carried out only at the very end of the XIX century. In recent years, he is given to the study of gravity with pendulums, wrote a big lead scientist of navigation with numerous new appliances, is a dissertation on the icy mountains, where the completely faithful to the conclusion that these mountains can be formed just off the coast of the sea of fresh water; equips naval expedition to explore the northern seas.
Finally, Mikhail Lomonosov makes a remarkable discovery, even in astronomy: the passage of the planet Venus across the solar disk in 1761, Lomonosov saw what he did not see dozens of astronomers who observed this phenomenon, namely that the planet Venus is surrounded by a great atmosphere. And in all these we see, as in the earlier, the wealth of new ideas and views, often approaching directly to the present". Speaking about the general outlook for University studies in chemistry, academic Walden notes, "If we compare the gigantic program of physical and chemical experiments University with the current state of physical chemistry, for example , the classic textbook Ostwald, then we just hit the community of scientific material conceived and created by Lomonosov in the course of 150 years of physical chemistry... Even the newest area of physical chemistry, colloid chemistry, University is not forgotten, they are already Premonition bond chemistry with electricity... It looks so modern, and the presentation of them so fresh that when reading them, we forget that a hundred and fifty years separate us, modern physical chemists, of who can be called the "Father of Physical Chemistry"...
Especially us, chemists, attracted his views on the origin of amber, its hypothesis of coal tar, asphalt, oil... I think Mikhail Lomonosov since before the time of Lavoisier could easily create their era chemistry. Whether he is a loyal and patient artist of all planned their theoretical and experimental plans, he would have committed no regeneration chemicals into the chemistry of the XVIII century: his new chemistry was a rival to the physical chemistry of the late XIX century". "If Lomonosov - says Professor KURILOV - not scheduled constancy of the laws of weight, has not substantiated the first principle of thermodynamics, not refereed the main provisions of an atomic theory, it is only on the basis of his "Elements of Mathematical Chemistry", would have to be recognized as a forerunner and the founder of modern physical chemistry".
Here is a program for chemical research, as set out in the Lomonosov "on the Use of Chemistry", Professor KURILOV observes: "These golden words, spoken 160 years ago, still in force and freshness of the moment: they must serve as a guide in the preparation of the curriculum of the faculty teaching chemistry, they should have in front of them to anyone who is preparing himself to work on the specialty chemical". Speaking about the work of University of Geology and Mineralogy, Academy of Vernadsky remarks: «Of all the works in the University area of expertise stands out his work on the layers of the earth. It is in all the literature of the XVIII century - Russian and foreign - first brilliant sketch of the geological sciences. For us, it is interesting not only because it is associated with scientific work, self- marching at the head of the human mind, made in our environment, but also because it is largely based on the study of the nature of our country, while it is made before the tremendous work describe Russia, which was accomplished naturalists associated with the Academy of Sciences, during the reign of Catherine II...».
Ideas and initiatives of Mikhail Lomonosov, a scientist who during his life were understood and appreciated by only a very few individual professionals, as Euler. As far as the situation was extremely University as a great thinker and a harbinger of great ideas, so sad was the fate that befell the fruits of his scientific work. "Contemporaries University - said Professor I.A. Kablukov ("Lomonosov collection") - with the exception of a few individuals do not understand or appreciate his works on physics and chemistry. Count Mikhail Vorontsov, for example, looked at the electrical machine as a "perk test secrets of nature"; V.A. Nashchokin ironically pointed out that Richman machine trying to save people from thunder and lightning - and he himself was killed.
Did not understand or appreciate the works of Lomonosov even people who were close to science and education, his closest comrades in the academy, even his immediate deputies on the academic department. They talked about Lomonosov only 90 years after his death, and spoke for the first time at the Moscow University, when he had to remember that the Lomonosov was its founder... On the works of Lomonosov paid due attention only in 1900 when the 150th anniversary of the founding of the first Russian chemical laboratory, which was established by Lomonosov again" ("Lomonosov Collection"). Physico-chemical Lomonosov's work appeared in a collection of Ostwald: «Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften» (№ 178). Historians of chemistry is especially appreciated GW University Kahlbaum, P. Diergart and M. Speter. Professor Menshutkina gives the following "historical background" : "In 1865, when marks the centenary of the death of Governors, meeting in solemn academy and universities evaluated his work by scientists at the time. In their speeches, we find little guidance on what we put out today as the most important in the works of Lomonosov, such as the mechanical theory of heat and gases, physical chemistry. These thoughts did not seem to particularly outstanding in 1865, although passed one hundred years after the death of Governors, quite similar physical theories have been proposed long before the well-known scientists of the XIX century, but at that time there were still spread, and it took several more years before they came to the academic community. The heyday of Physical Chemistry, belongs only to the end of the last century. These facts show how genius University ahead of its time".
All scientific works of Mikhail Lomonosov in the entire height of its theoretical content, and soon had a purely practical application. His "science" Lomonosov tried to draw first and foremost to serve the living needs and requirements of the "Russian world" and "the Russian people". Lomonosov argued, for example, "we have no natural Russians nor chemist, and few doctorsru, engineers and skilled, mountain people, lawyers and academics, lower themselves professors of the Academy and elsewhere"; necessary to "recruit students from seminary", "send natural Russian students in foreign lands for graduation", allow the formation of all without distinction as to class, take care of the multiplication of translated books. "In all European countries, - he writes - allowed to be taught in the academies... people of all ranks, without turning off the townspeople and peasants' children, although there are already a great many learned men. And we in Russia at the very science endeavor, this is the source of the rules on the 24th item is locked, where the situation in the poll salary to the university to take prohibited. As if forty hit the jackpot so great and the treasury was a heavy amount, which a pity to lose the purchase of natural scientist Russians".
To what extent do Lomonosov was with his "science" on the ground of reality, the extent to which the famous writer who came out of the people, "sincerely loved his people and wished him luck, knowing what it is" - a show of his numerous articles on purely public nature, a number of projects that have been preserved only in part, more than in the passages in the draft papers, and sometimes not at all survived and are known only by occasional references. These are: "Discourse on the breeding and conservation of the Russian people", "On the extermination of idleness", "On correcting the manners and education for more people", "On correcting farming", "On fixing and reproduction craft Affairs and Arts", "About the best uses of merchants", "On the best state economy", "On the preservation of military art at the time of lasting peace". The extant treatise "On the propagation and preservation of the Russian people", reveals the breadth of understanding of the Lomonosov public issues.
He argues that an increase in the number of births ("for abundant fertility Rodia") is necessary to:
To save born to
(IK Suhoplyuev 'Views on University policy of population "in the" Compendium of the Lomonosov"), Lomonosov proves that great post we have to "in the most unhealthy time of year that is not accepted in consideration brutal nature of the north". He speaks perfect Russian villages on the absence of doctors, "from which especially increases mortality", the "great and frequent fires," the "fighting among the people, robbery, drunkenness", about the oppression of dissenters, of conscription from which the Russian people are running for border. The treatise shows how rightly observed, "as a well known Russian Lomonosov life in which she was rising clear images in front of us".
In the writings of the brilliant Russian peasant literature immediately rose to the height of a broad, conscious of serving Russian society and the Russian people. Literature, " Collected Works" University has already published during his lifetime (St. Petersburg, 1751, 1767 - 1759 ). In 1778's out collection of various works in prose and poetry, edited by the Bishop of Damascus Semenov- Rudnev, the best remaining before the attempted edited by Academician Suhomlinova academic publication. Further publications represented in the text, more and more distortion or literally reprinted from the edition of Damascus. Much lower than the publication of Damascus stood, for example, undertaken in 1784 - 1787 years of the Russian Academy of "The Complete Works of MV Lomonosov Moscow State University, with the addition of many of his nowhere else printed creations", with new distortions reprinted in 1803 - 1804 years, repeating the publication of Damascus; partly even better - has been printed so carelessly that the editor was written Kozodavleva epigram: "O. K. (On- Kako) each KraMZ (ie Derzhavina Moors), but only one sassy Who disfigured as midwife grandmother, Malherbe Russian countries presladostny singer...".
Kozodavlev itself, however, does not deserve this epigram, it was published only the first part of the publication, and the room it was a direct emails University Kozodavleva merit. There has been considerable merits edition, published in 1787 in Moscow, in the printing Novikov, placed here quite a few options. Academic Press 1804, with new distortion is the basis smirdinskogo edition (St. Petersburg, 1847), perhaps the worst of all. A few more serviceable edition was Perelesskogo "Selected Works of Lomonosov" (Wiley, 1846). It is worthy of publication of a work, "the creator of a new Russian literature", waited only very recently, and still not quite: undertaken by the Academy of Sciences edition of the works under the editorship of Academician Lomonosov Suhomlinova is still unfinished (published 5 volumes, St. Petersburg., 1891 - 1902). First rave reviews on literary activity University, along with some biographical information about him, belong to Count AP Shuvalov: «Ode sur la mort de Monsieur Lomonosof» (1765 Kuniko printed in the "Collection of materials for the History of the Academy of Sciences", that I, St. Petersburg., 1865), Dmitrevsky («Nachricht» and others, 1768), Novikov ("Dictionary", 1772), Stehlin ("Memories").
Article from the "Dictionary" Novikov was reprinted in the publication of Damascus. "Memories" Staehelin served, apparently, a material for a biographical sketch University, printed in the publication of his works 1784 - 1787's and made up, as has often been suggested, V. Verevkin. In the true form of "Memories" Staehelin not preserved, and all that came before us, published in Kunik ("Proceedings" and so on, vol II, St. Petersburg., 1865, pp. 383 - 405, here are some explanatory to them notes cf. Pekarskii «History of the Academy of Sciences», I, St. Petersburg., 1873, pp. 560 - 561).
"The Biography of Governors' reprinted and after a long time served as the only source from which information about Lomonosov drawn the... Up to 30 years of the XIX century Lomonosov appreciated only as a poet on the scientific labors almost did not mention it, but they did not know. Broader critical to the work of University begins with Pushkin and Belinsky, the actual scientific studies - from Buslaeva book: "On the Teaching of Russian Language" (Wiley, 1844) and the remarkable for its time, labor Konstantin Aksakov: "Lomonosov in the history of Russian language and Russian literature" (Wiley, 1846, in the «Collected Works», II, M., 1875).
Tikhonravov were first published some essays University, "the Court written Russian", note "On the responsibilities of the clergy" ("Chronicle of Russian literature", 1859, Vol. 2), "Discourse on the propagation and preservation of the Russian people" («Conversation in the Society of Russia literature», III, 1871 Wed, "Eng. Antiquities", 1873, Vol VIII, pp. 465 - 580), where the same work published by another list, delivered Pekarsky). The history of the last printing of the treatise shows how difficult it appeared we sometimes work our classics (see Suhomlinova "Research and Articles», I. St. Petersburg., 1889, pp. 459 - 460, 524 - 526).
Interesting facts about foreign student's life are given in the article University Suhomlinova: "Lomonosov, a student of the University of Marburg" ("Russian Journal", 1861, Vol. 1). The earliest estimate University, as a historian, was made by Soloviev ("Russian historians of the XVIII century." - "Archives of Historical and legal information" Kalachova, I, Vol. 1. M.). Since 1865, in connection with the jubilee celebrations, the study by University becomes more solid. By this time the works: Bilyarskii "Materials for a biography of Lomonosov" (St. Petersburg, 1865); Pekarskii "More news biography of Lomonosov" (Annex VIII to that of "Notes of the Academy of Sciences", 1866, № 7), Kunik "Proceedings for history of the Imperial Academy of Sciences" (St. Petersburg, 1865), V. Lamanskii" Lomonosov and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences" ("Materials for the centenary of his memory. 1765 - 1865", Moscow, 1865).
These four books, enclosing a mass of documentary material of paramount importance, and are still probably the most valuable materials for the study of the life circumstances of Governors. Work Bilyarskii no different scientific impartiality; materials placed here not only suffer extreme one-sided selection, but are sometimes just cut out the places that give cause other lighting. In addition, 1865 is a number of different smaller articles, studies, speeches, of which the most valuable: N.N. Bulich works ("To the memory of a century Lomonosov", Kazan, 1865), Grote ("Essay on the academic activities of Governors' St. Petersburg., 1865), N.A. Lyubimov ("Lomonosov and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences", "Russian Journal", 1865, Vol. 3 ), N. Yakobson ("On the Lomonosov on new materials", Kharkov, 1865), a collection articles and speeches that appeared in Moscow: "The celebration of the centennial of the University in the Imperial Moscow University" (Wiley, 1865, article Solovyov Buslaeva, Tikhonravov Bodyanskyi, Shurovsky, Lyaskovsky, etc.), such as collections of articles and speeches, in which were the Kharkov and Kazan.
With the celebration of the anniversary of Lomonosov in 1865 to a large proportion of linked soon appeared more extensive work BUDILOVICH: "Lomonosov as a naturalist and scholar" (St. Petersburg, 1869), and further bibliographical work by the same author: "Lomonosov as a writer" ("Collection II Branch of the Academy of Sciences", that VIII, St. Petersburg., 1872). On the jubilee celebrations connected and printed in the same "Collection of the Academy of Sciences", it is still valuable bibliographical edition Ponomariov: "Materials for a bibliography of Lomonosov." Capital acquisition, preserving the value entirely and still is released in 1873 II T. "History of the Imperial Academy of Sciences' Pekarskii, much of which is occupied by an extensive biography of the University.
Of the more recent works of Lomonosov issued studies and articles: G.A. Resurrection ("Lomonosov Moscow Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy", Moscow, 1890), Pypin ("Lomonosov and his contemporaries", - "Herald of Europe" 1895, March), E.V. Petukhov ("epigrammatic, satirical and humorous poems University" ("Collection of erudite literary Company at Tartu University», I, 1898), P. Milyukova ("Main Currents of Russian historical thought", I, M., 1897, characteristics of Governors, as a historian), E.F. Buddha ("a few notes from the history of Russian language", "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", 1898, March, and "Essay on the history of modern Russian literary language" in the "Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Philological"., Issue 12, St. Petersburg., 1908), Istomin ("The principal features of the language and phrasing of Lomonosov", "Russian Journal of Philology," 1896), A.P. Koldubovskogo ("on the sources of the Lomonosov doctrine of three styles", in the collection of articles in honor of Prof. M.S. Drinov, Kharkov, 1905).
Capital contribution to the scientific literature on Lomonosov is the aforementioned academic publication "University Works", edited by Academician M.I. Suhomlinova the text works thoroughly tested by the manuscripts and early printed editions, the notes are shown in large variations, translations and imitations of Mikhail Lomonosov collate with scripts. The new revival in the study of the life and activities of the University is celebrating in 1911 the 200th anniversary of his birth.
In the "Lomonosov Collection" of the Academy of Sciences, other than the above, put another article V. Rozanov, V.N. Peretz, S.A. Belokurova, A. Grandilevskogo, I.M. Sibirtseva. See, further, A.I. Soboleskogo "Lomonosov in the history of Russian Language" (St. Petersburg, 1911), E.F. Kara "The significance University in the development of Russian literary language" (Warsaw, 1912), V.V. Sipovskaya "The literary work of Lomonosov" (St. Petersburg, 1911), S.G. Vilinskaya "Ideals of MV Lomonosov" (Odessa, 1912), I.I. Zamotina "Two elements in the literary and social activities Lomonosov" (Warsaw, 1911), I. Tikhomirov "On the writings of Lomonosov Russian history" ("Journal of the Ministry of National Education", 1912, Vol. 9). Extensive bibliographic material placed in a book by Professor Vengerov, "XVIII century Russian poetry" (issue VI, St. Petersburg., 1897, pp. 273 - 313). (A.S. Arkhangelsk)
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov died on April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765, in St. Petersburg.
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