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Peter I - biography

Peter 1

Peter I the Great (Петр I) [30 May (June 9), 1672, Moscow - January 28 (February 8) 1725, St. Petersburg], Russia's Tsar from 1682 (reigned 1689), the first Russian emperor (1721), the youngest son of Alexei Mikhailovich of second marriage with Natalia Naryshkin Kirillovna.

22 March 1677, Peter I in the 5-year study began.

As an old Russian tradition of Peter began teaching at five years. At the opening of the course came to the king and the patriarch, a Te Deum with the Blessing of the Waters, sprinkled holy water on the new spudeya and blessed it, put in the alphabet. Zotov bowed his pupil into the ground and began a course of his teaching, and immediately received and the fee: the patriarch gave him a hundred rubles (a little over a thousand rubles in our currency), the emperor granted him the court, made it into the nobility, and the queen-mother sent two pairs of upper and rich dresses and underwear, "the whole piece," in which the departure of the Emperor and the Patriarch Zotov immediately and pereryadilsya. Krekshino noted, and the day when Peter began training - 12 March 1677, when, therefore, Peter was not even five years.

The prince went willingly and boldly. In his spare time he liked to listen to different stories and books to be considered "kunshtami" pictures. Zotov told this to the queen, and she told him to issue a "historical books" of the manuscript with drawings of the palace library and ordered the affairs of the masters of painting in the Armory several new illustrations.

Noticing when Peter started to get tired of reading the book, Zotov took from him a book and showed him the picture accompanying the review of their explanations. (Klyuchevsky Vasily Osipovich).

Peter I conducted a Public Administration Reform (created Senate, boards, agencies and senior government control of political investigation, the church is subject to the state, the division held the country in the province, is built new capital - St. Petersburg).

Peter I used the experience of Western European countries in the development of industry, commerce and culture. Pursued a policy of mercantilism (the creation of factories, metallurgical, mining and other plants, shipyards, marinas and canals). Supervised the construction of the fleet and the creation of a regular army.

Peter I led the army in the Azov campaigns 1695-1696, the Northern War of 1700-1721, Prut Campaign 1711, the Persian campaign of 1722-1723, he commanded the troops in the capture of Noteburg (1702), in the battles of the village of Forest (1708) and at Poltava (1709). Contributed to the strengthening of economic and political situation of the nobility.

On the initiative of Peter I discovered many of the schools, the Academy of Sciences, passed the civil alphabet. The reforms of Peter I met violent means, by the extreme stress of material and human forces (poll tax), which entailed a revolt (Strelets 1698, Astrakhan 1705-1706, Bulavin 1707-1709), was ruthlessly suppressed by the government. As the creator of the powerful absolutist state, has achieved recognition for the credibility of Russia a great power.

Childhood, youth, education, Peter I

Having lost his father in 1676, Peter was brought up to ten years under the supervision of his elder brother King Fedor Alekseevich, who chose him in the teacher's clerk Nikita Zotov, who taught the boy to read. When Fyodor died in 1682, the throne was inherited Ivan, but because he differed poor health, supporters Naryshkins proclaimed King Peter. However Miloslavskys, relatives of the first wife of Alexei Mikhailovich, not put up with it and provoked a riot strelets, during which ten Peter had witnessed the massacre of people close to him. These events have left an indelible mark on the memory boy, reflected on his mental health, and outlook.

The result was a political rebellion compromise on the throne, were built with Ivan and Peter, a ruler named their eldest sister, Princess Sophia Alekseyevna. Since that time, Peter and his mother lived mostly in villages and the Transfiguration of Izmailovo, appearing in the Kremlin s only for official ceremonies, and their relationship with Sophia became increasingly hostile. Neither the secular nor the ecclesiastical formal education did not get the future king. It was left to himself, and mobile and energetic, a lot of time spent in play with peers. Later he was allowed to create their own "mock" shelves, with whom he played battles and maneuvers, and who subsequently became the basis of the Russian regular army.

In Izmailovo Peter found an old English bot , which he ordered repaired and tested on the river Yauza. Soon he was in a German settlement, which was first introduced to the European way of life, experienced a first heart passion and made friends among the European merchants. Gradually, the company was formed around Peter's friends, with whom he spent all his spare time. In August 1689, when the news reached him on the preparation of the new Sophia Strelets revolt, he fled to the Holy Trinity Monastery, where it came from a Moscow loyal regiments and part of the yard. Sophia, feeling that the force on the side of his brother, attempted conciliation, but it was too late: she was removed from power and imprisoned in the Novodevichy Convent. Sophia kept her favorite - Theodore L. Shaklovity which, when coming to power of Peter has been executed under torture.

The beginning of self-government

Evdokia Lopukhin

The first wife of Peter I Evdokia Lopukhin (the monastery).

In the second half of the 17th century. Russia experienced a deep crisis of the socio-economic backwardness of the advanced countries of Europe. Peter with his energy, curiosity, interest in everything new was a man capable of solving the problems facing the country. But first he entrusted the management of the country and maternal uncle, LK Naryshkin. The king is still little visited Moscow in 1689 at the insistence of the mother was married to EF Lopukhina.

Peter drew the sea of fun, and he went away a long time in Pereslavl and Archangel, where he participated in the construction and testing of ships. Only in 1695 he decided to undertake a real military campaign against the Turkish fortress of Azov. The first Azov campaign ended in failure, then in Voronezh was hastily built fleet, and during the second campaign (1696), Azov was taken. At the same time was founded Taganrog. It was the first victory of the young Peter, significantly strengthen its authority.

Shortly after returning to the capital of the king went (1697) with the Grand Embassy abroad. Peter went to Holland, England, Saxony, Austria and Venice, he studied shipbuilding, working in the shipyards, acquainted with the technological advances of that time in Europe, its way of life, political systems. During his trip abroad had laid the foundation of the Union of Russia, Poland and Denmark against Sweden. The news of a new rebellion Streltsi led Peter to return to Russia (1698), where he dealt with the extraordinary brutality of the rebels (Streltsy Uprising of 1698).

The first conversion of Peter I

Abroad, there was mostly a political program of Peter. Her ultimate goal was the establishment of a regular police state based on universal service to him, the state is understood as the "common good". The king himself considered himself the first servant of his country, who by his own example had taught subjects. Unconventional behavior of Peter, on the one hand, destroyed the centuries the emerging image of the emperor as a sacred figure, and with another - provoked an outcry from sections of society (mainly Old Believers who are persecuted Peter), who saw in the king the Antichrist.

The reforms of Peter I began with the introduction of foreign dress and shave their beards to all orders, except the peasants and the clergy. So initially the Russian society was divided into two unequal parts: one (the nobility and the tip of the urban population) meant implanted above Europeanized culture, and the other retained the traditional way of life.

In 1699 was also reformed the calendar. In Amsterdam, was founded a publishing house for publication of secular books in Russian, was founded the first Russian order - St. Andrew. The country badly in need of its own skilled personnel, and the king ordered to send abroad for training young men from noble families. In 1701 in Moscow was opened on Navigation School. Started and the reform of urban governance. After the death of Patriarch Adrian in 1700 to elect a new patriarch did not, and Peter has created a monastic order to control the church management. Later, instead of the patriarch was created synodal church government, sohranyavshesya until 1917. Simultaneously with the first change was intensely preparing for a war with Sweden, which was previously signed a peace treaty with Turkey.

Peter I introduced as the celebration of New Year 's in Russia.

Lessons from the Great Northern War

battle of Poltava

Detail of an engraving by F. Simon's "Battle of Poltava." In the original PD Morten. The first quarter of the 19th veka.Gosudarstvenny Historical Museum. Moscow.

War, the main purpose of which was securing Russia on the Baltic, began with the defeat of the Russian army at Narva in 1700. However, the lesson went to Peter for the future: he realized that the reason for the defeat of underdevelopment especially in the Russian army, and with even greater energy set out to re-establish regular regiments, and, first by collecting "datochnyh people," and in 1705 with the introduction of conscription recruit (in 1701, after the defeat of the Russian army at Narva economist and writer Ivan Tikhonovich Pososhkov made a note for Peter I «On inverse behavior" by proposing measures to create an efficient army.). The construction of the metallurgical and weapons factories, supplying high-quality guns for the army and small arms. Hike Swedish troops under King Charles XII of Poland allowed the Russian army to win the first victory over the enemy, capture and devastate a large part of the Baltic. In 1703 at the mouth of the Neva River, Peter founded St. Petersburg - the new capital of Russia, which is intended for the king was to be a model city, "Paradise." During these years, the Boyar Duma changed consisting of members of the entourage of King Consilia ministers, along with Moscow's orders in St. Petersburg to create new institutions. In 1708 the country was divided into provinces. In 1709, after the battle a turning point in the war and the king was able to focus more on domestic political affairs.

Management reform of Peter I

In 1711, going to the Prut campaign, Peter I founded the Administrative Senate, which had the functions of chief executive, judicial and legislative branches. From 1717 saw the creation of colleges - central government control of industry, based fundamentally different way than the old Moscow orders. The new government - executive, financial, judicial, and control - were created in the field. In 1720 was published by General Regulation - detailed instructions for the organization of new institutions. In 1722, Peter signed the Table of Ranks, which determined the organization of military and civil service, and which operated until 1917. Even earlier, in 1714, issued a decree on primogeniture, to equate the rights of owners of estates and the estates. It was important for the formation of the Russian nobility as a single grade class. But of paramount importance for the social tax reform was initiated in 1718. In Russia, the poll tax was introduced with the males, which were regular census ("revision souls"). The reform has been eliminated social category slaves and refined social status of some of the other groups. In 1721, after the Northern War, Russia was proclaimed an empire, but the Senate has honored the titles of Peter "the Great" and "Father of the Fatherland."

Changes in the economy

Peter I clearly understood the need to overcome technical backwardness of Russia and strongly promoted the development of Russian industry and trade, including foreign policy. His patronage used by many merchants and manufacturers, among which the most famous Demidov. It was built many new factories, new industries. However, its development in wartime conditions led to the priority development of heavy industries, which at the end of the war exist without the support of the state could not. In fact enserfed position of the urban population, high taxes, forced the closure of the port of Archangel, and some other government measures are not conducive to the development of foreign trade. In general, lasted for 21 years exhausting war, requiring major investments derived mainly by extraordinary taxes, led to the impoverishment of the actual population of the country, mass escapes of peasants, merchants and industrialists of the ruin.

Conversion of Peter I in the field of culture

Time of Peter I - this time, the penetration of the active elements of Russian life in the secular westernized culture. Began to appear secular schools, founded the first Russian newspaper. The success of the service, Peter set for the nobility dependent on education. Special decree of the king were introduced Assembly, representing a new form of communication in Russia among people. Of particular importance was the construction of the Stone of St. Petersburg, which was attended by foreign architects and which was carried out by the king of the developed plan. They created a new urban environment with unfamiliar forms of life before, pastime. Changed the interior of homes, lifestyle, food composition, and so gradually formed in the environment evolved a different system of values, world view or aesthetic views. In 1724 he founded the Academy of Sciences (opened in 1725).

Private Life of King

On his return from the Great Embassy, Peter I finally broke with his first wife hated. Later, he met with Latvian captive Martha Skavronskaia (the future Empress Catherine I), which was crowned in 1712.

1 March 1712, Peter I married Martha Samuilovna Ckavronskoy accepting the orthodoxy and was called from that time Ekaterina A..

Mother Martha Skavronskaia - farmer, died early. On the education of Martha Skavronskaya (as it was called then) took Pastor Gluck. First, Martha was married dragoon, but his wife she would not, because the groom was urgently summoned to Riga. On arrival in the Russian Marienburg was taken as captives. According to some sources, Martha was the daughter of Livonian nobleman. On the other - a native of Sweden. The first assertion is more reliable. When she was taken prisoner, took her to himself, BP Sheremetev, and he took her and begged AD Menshikov, the latter - Peter I. In 1703 she became a favorite. During the three years prior to their marriage, the church, in 1709, Peter I and Catherine had a daughter, Elizabeth. Catherine took the name of March, taking the Orthodox, even though the same name (Katherine Trubacheva), it was called when I was at the AD Menshikov. Kozlov Yu Pages State of the Russian government - Yoshkar-Ola, 1990, p.145.

March Skavronskaya Peter I gave birth to several children, of whom only survived his daughter Anna and Elizabeth (the future Empress Elizabeth). Peter, apparently, was very attached to his second wife in 1724 and crowned her the imperial crown, intending to bequeath to her throne. However, shortly before his death, he learned about his wife's infidelity with B. Mons. Did not develop and the relationship with the king's son from his first marriage, the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, who died when not fully clarified the circumstances in the fortress in 1718 (for the king had set up the Secret Chancellery). Peter I died from the disease urinary organs, without leaving a will. The emperor had a whole bunch of diseases, but more of the other ailments of his pestering uremia.

The results of the reforms of Peter

Peter IThe most important result of the reforms of Peter was to overcome the crisis of traditionalism by modernizing the country. Russia became a full member of international relations, has conducted an active foreign policy. Significantly increased the authority of Russia in the world, and the Peter I became a model for many of the emperor-reformer. When Peter was laid the foundation of Russian national culture. King has also created a system of management and administrative-territorial division of the country that had prevailed for a long time. However, the main instrument of reform has been violence. Peter's reforms not only saved the country from the previously existing system of social relations embodied in serfdom, but on the contrary, canned, and strengthened its institutions. This was the main contradiction of Peter's reforms, the future of the prerequisites of a new crisis.

Peter I the Great (article by PN Miliukov of the "Encyclopedic Dictionary Brockhaus and Efron," 1890 - 1907)

Peter I the Great A. - First Emperor of Russia, was born May 30, 1672, from the second marriage of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkin, Boyar pupil AS Matveev.

Contrary to the legendary stories Krekshino, teaching infant Peter was going pretty slow. Tradition makes three year old child to report to his father, a colonel, in fact, two and a half years, he has not yet been weaned. We do not know when it began learning to read and write, NM Zotov, but it is known that in 1683, Peter had not finished learning the alphabet.

Before the end of his life, Peter has continued to ignore the grammar and spelling. As a child, he met with "ekzertsitsiyami soldier system" and take over the art of beating the drum, and this limited his knowledge of military to military exercises with Vorobiev (1683). In the autumn of this year, Peter has played in the wooden horses. All this does not go from the pattern of the then usual "fun" of the royal family. Deviations begin only when the political circumstances of Peter's throw from the track. With the death of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich, deaf, and the struggle Miloslavskys Naryshkin passes into open conflict. April 27 a crowd gathered in front of a red porch Kremlin Palace, the king cried Peter, beating his older brother John, May 15, on the same porch, Peter was standing in front of another crowd, Shedding Matveev and Dolgoruky on streltsy spears. The legend depicts Peter's serene in this day of revolt, more likely, that the impression was strong, and that here are the beginning and the well-known nervousness of Peter and his hatred of the musketeers. A week after the riot (May 23) winners from the government demanded that the kings were appointed the two brothers, a week later (29th), at the request of the new archers, with the youth handed over the reign of kings was Princess Sophia.

The Party Peter was excluded from any participation in public affairs; Natalia all the regency of Sophia came to Moscow for only a few winter months, spending the rest of the Transfiguration in the suburban village. About a young court grouped much of the noble families and are not decided to link their fate with the interim government of Sofia. Left to himself, Peter disaccustomed tolerate any restraint, to indulge in the performance of any kind was desire. Queen of Natalia, a woman "small mind" in the words of her cousin Prince. Kurakin care, apparently, solely on the physical side of his son's upbringing.

From the outset, we see Peter's surrounded by a "young children, simple people," and "young people's first homes", the first, in the end prevailed, and the "noble person" were alienated. It is likely that the simple, noble, and children's play Peter's friends are equally deserving of the nickname of "mischievous", given to them by Sophia. In 1683-1685, out of friends and volunteers organized two regiments settled in villages and nearby Transfiguration Semenov. Little by little, in Peter develops an interest in the technical side of military affairs, which led him to seek new teachers and new knowledge. "In mathematics, fortification, and the skill of turning the lights orthotopic" is when a foreign teacher, Peter, Franz Timmerman. The remaining (from 1688?) Training notebook Peter showed sustained its efforts to acquire applied toward arithmetic, astronomy, and the artillery of wisdom, and those notebooks show that the foundation of all this wisdom and have remained a mystery for Peter. But turning the art of pyrotechnics and have always been hobbies of Peter.

The only major and unsuccessful intervention of the mother in the privacy of the young man was getting married it to the EF Lopukhina, January 27, 1689, before reaching 17 years of Peter. It was, however, political rather than educational measure. Sophia zhenila King John, too, immediately upon reaching 17 years, but he has only daughters were born. The most choice of bride for Peter was a product of party struggles: his mother's aristocratic supporters offered the bride of the princely race, but won Naryshkins with Tux. Streshneva headed, and had chosen the daughter of landed gentry. After it reached out to the court numerous relatives ("more than 30 people," says Kurakin). Such a lot of new places seekers who did not know, though, "yard appeal" against the aroused Lopukhins general irritation at the court, the queen Natalie soon, "his daughter hated and wanted to see more of her husband in a disagreement, rather than in love" (Kurakin). This, as well as the dissimilarity of characters, explains that "a fair amount of love," Peter's wife, "continued unless tokmo year," and then Peter began to prefer family life - hiking in the Preobrazhensky regiment regimental hut.

A new class shipbuilding - distracted him even further, with the Yauza Peter moved with his ships to Pereyaslavskoe lake, and had fun out there even in winter time. Peter's participation in public affairs was limited, during the regency of Sophia, in the presence of ceremonies. As soon as Peter grew up and expanded its military fun, Sophia began to worry more for their power and began to take measures for its preservation. On the night of August 8, 1689, Peter was awakened in the Transfiguration archers, had brought the news of the real or imaginary threat from the Kremlin. Peter ran to the Trinity, and his supporters ordered to convene the noble militia, demanded to his chiefs and deputies of the Moscow troops and waged a short shrift to the main supporters of Sophia. Sophia was placed in the monastery, John, rules in name only, in fact, power was transferred to the party of Peter. At first, however, the "Majesty left his mother's reign, and the General transmitted to the time of its amusements ekzertsitsy war."

The Board of Queen Natalie seemed to contemporaries the era of reaction against the Reformation aspirations Sophia. Peter took advantage of the change of its position only in order to expand to gigantic proportions his amusement. Thus, the new regimental maneuvers ended in 1694 Kozhukhovsky campaigns, in which "the king Fedor Pleshbursky (Romodanovsky) defeated" Ivan Semenov "(Buturlin), leaving the field of battle amusing 24 of these were killed and 50 wounded. The expansion of marine amusement prompted Peter to travel twice to the White Sea, where he was subjected to grave danger while traveling on the Solovki Islands. Over the years the center of dissolute life of Peter is the new home of his beloved, Lefort, a German settlement. "Then began deboshstvo, drunkenness so great that it is impossible to describe what three days locked in the house, there were drunk and that many cases that's why I die" (Kurakin).

In the house of Lefort, Peter, "began with the ladies, and do inozemskimi carp first began to be a merchant's daughter." "In practice" at the ball Lefort, Peter, "learned to dance in Polish," the son of the Danish Commissioner Butenant taught him fencing and riding, Vinius Dutchman - Dutch practice, during a trip to Archangel, Peter dressed in a sailor's Dutch costume. In parallel, the assimilation of European appearance went rapid destruction of the old court etiquette, came out of the use of grand exits in the cathedral church, public audience, and other "backyard ceremony." "Swearing notable personas" of the king's favorites and court jesters, as well as the establishment of "vseshuteyshego and vsepyaneyshego Cathedral" has its origins in the same era. In 1694, Peter's mother died. Although now, Peter, "he was compelled to join the administration, but that does not work w would bear, and left all of their state government - the ministers his" (Kurakin). He found it difficult to abandon the freedom to which he taught during involuntary removal from the cases, and then he did not like to associate himself or her official duties, instructing them to others (eg, "Prince-Caesar Romodanovsky, to which Peter plays the role of loyal), and he remained in the background. The government machine in the early years of the reign of Peter's own continues to follow its course, he intervenes in this course only if and insofar as it is and when it is necessary for its naval amusements.

Very soon, however, is "childish strumming" the soldiers and ships of Peter leads to serious difficulties, to remove which is essentially necessary to disturb the old political order. "We joked a Kozhukhovo, and now under the Azov going to play" - so says Peter FM Apraksin in early 1695 on the Azov campaign. Already in the previous year, having become acquainted with the inconvenience of the White Sea, Peter began to think about transferring their marine activities to some other sea. He hesitated between the Baltic and the Caspian; course of Russian diplomacy led him to prefer war with Turkey and the Crimea, and the secret purpose of the campaign, was appointed Azov - the first step towards the exit to the Black Sea.

Playful tone will soon disappear, letters of Peter are concise, to the extent it finds unprepared troops and generals of serious action. The failure of the first march compels Peter to make new efforts. The flotilla, based on the Voronezh, however, is too flimsy for military action, drawn by Peter foreign engineers are late; Azov surrenders in 1696 "to the contract, not a military craft." Peter loudly celebrating the victory, but a good feel for the success of the insignificance and lack of strength to continue fighting. He has to grab the boyars' fortune for the pow, "and to raise funds to build a fleet to continue the war against" infidels "of the sea.

Boyars laid on the construction of ships' kumpanstva "secular and ecclesiastical landowners, who had at least 100 yards, the rest of the population was to help with money. Constructed "kumpanstvami" ships were later utterly useless, and all this first fleet, which cost about 900 thousand people of the then rubles, could not be employed for any practical purposes. At the same time with the device "kumpanstv" and referring to the same purpose, ie, the war with Turkey, it was decided to equip the embassy abroad, to secure an alliance against the "infidels." "Bombardier" at the beginning of the Azov campaign and the "captain" at the end, Peter is now adjacent to the embassy as a "volunteer Peter Mikhailov," in order to study the nearest ship.

March 9, 1697 the Embassy moved from Moscow, with the intention to visit Vienna, English and Danish kings, the pope, the Dutch States, Elector of Brandenburg, and Venice. The first impression of Peter was abroad, in his words, "are pleasant enough": the commandant of Riga Dahlberg too literally understood incognito king, and did not allow him to inspect the building: later, Peter has made of this incident casus belli. Lush meeting Mitau and friendly welcome Elector of Brandenburg at Konigsberg corrected it. From Kohlberg, Peter went forward, the sea, in Lьbeck and Hamburg, probably trying to reach his goal - a minor Dutch shipyard in Saardame recommended by one of his Moscow acquaintances.

Here, Peter spent 8 days, the population of the small town of surprising his extravagant behavior. The Embassy has arrived in Amsterdam in mid-August and remained there until mid-May 1698, although negotiations have been finished in November 1697 in January 1698, Peter went to England to expand their knowledge of sea and stayed there for three and a half months, working mainly in the shipyard in Deptford. The main purpose of the Embassy was not achieved because the states have resolutely refused to help Russia in a war with Turkey, for Peter used his stay in Holland and England to acquire new knowledge, and the embassy was engaged in procurement of weapons and all sorts of naval stores, hiring sailors, artisans and etc.

At the European observers were impressed by Peter Savage curious, interested mostly crafts, applied knowledge, and all sorts of curiosities and underdeveloped to be interested in the essential features of the European political and cultural life. He is depicted a man very nervous and irascible, quick-changing moods and plans, and not knowing how to control himself in moments of anger, especially under the influence of wine.

The way back was through the embassy to Vienna. Peter experienced this new diplomatic failure, as Europe was preparing for a war of Spanish Succession, and bustled about reconciliation between Austria and Turkey, and not about the war between them. Cramped in their habits of strict etiquette of the Viennese court, and not finding new baits for curiosity, Peter was in a hurry to leave for Vienna to Venice, where he hoped to study the structure of the galleys.

The news of the revolt Streltsi caused him to Russia on the way he managed only to see the Polish king Augustus (in m Rave), and here, among the three days of continuous joy, flashed the first idea to replace a failed plan for an alliance against the Turks by another plan, the subject of which, instead of Slipping out of the hands of the Black Sea, Baltic Sea would be. First of all, was to do away with archers, and the old order in general. Straight from the road, without seeing his family, Peter traveled to Anna Mons, then on his Transfiguration Courtyard. The next morning, August 26, 1698, he himself began to cut his beard in the first dignitaries of the state. Archers were already defeated by Shein Voskresensky Monastery and the instigators of rebellion punished. Peter resumed the investigation into the riot, trying to find traces of the influence on the archers sister Sophia. Finding evidence of mutual sympathy rather than specific plans and actions, Peter nevertheless forced haircut Sophia and her sister Martha. The same moment he took advantage to force his wife to mow, do not blame in any implications to the rebellion.

The king's brother, John, died in 1696; no connection with the old one did not deter more than Peter, and he indulges in with his new favorites, such as put forward in the first place Menshikov, a continuous orgy, which paints a picture of Korb. Feasts and drinking parties give way to execution, in which the king himself sometimes plays the role of executioner, from late September to late October 1698 were executed over a thousand archers. In February 1699 once executed hundreds of archers. Moscow strelets army ceased to exist.

Decree of 20 December 1699 on a new chronology formally drew a line between old and new time. November 11, 1699 was concluded between Peter and Augustus secret treaty, which pledged to join Peter in Ingria and Karelia immediately after the conclusion of peace with Turkey, not later than April 1700, Livonia and Estonia, according to the plan Patkul, August provided currently. Peace with Turkey could only be made in August. This period of time Peter used to create a new army, as "the dissolution of any infantry archers cie state had." November 17, 1699 was declared the new set of 27 regiments, divided into three divisions, each headed by commanders of regiments were the Transfiguration, and Lefortovo Butyrsky. The first two divisions (Golovin and Wade) were fully formed by mid-June 1700, along with some other troops, up to 40 thousand, they were moved to the Swedish limits on the day of promulgation of peace with Turkey (August 19). To the dismay of allies, Peter sent his troops to Narva, took he could threaten the Livonia and Estonia. Only by the end of September, the troops gathered at Narva, only in late October, opened fire on the city. Charles XII had in that time put an end to Denmark and Peter unexpectedly landed in Estonia.

During the night of 17 to 18 November Russian learned that Charles XII is close to Narva. Peter left the camp, leaving the command of the Prince de Croy, unfamiliar with the soldiers and unknown to them - and the eight thousandth army of Charles XII, tired and hungry, broke, without any difficulty sorokatysyachnoe army of Peter. The hopes excited in Petra trip to Europe, replaced by disappointment. Charles XII did not consider it necessary to pursue further such a weak opponent and draws against Poland. Peter himself describes his impression of the words, "then drove the sloth and the bondage to the hard work and the art of day and night and forced." Indeed, from this moment, Peter is transformed. The need remains the same activities, but she finds nothing but the best application, all thoughts of Peter is now directed to the fact to defeat the opponent and gain a foothold in the Baltic Sea.

For eight years he was gaining about 200,000 soldiers and, in spite of the losses from the war and the military orders, brings the size of the army from 40 to 100 thousand cost of this army cost him in 1709 almost twice as expensive as in 1701: 1,810,000 River. instead of 982,000. During the first six years of war had been paid, in addition, subsidies to the Polish king about a half a million. If we add here the cost of the fleet, the artillery, the maintenance of the diplomats, the total flow, caused by the war, will be 2.3 million in 1701, 2.7 million in 1706 and 3.2 billion in 1710 . Already the first of these figures were too high in comparison with those funds, which were delivered to Peter the State population (about 11/2 mil.).

It was necessary to seek additional sources of income. At first, Peter cares little about it and just take for their own purposes of the old state institutions - not just their free radicals, and even those of the amounts that are spent primarily for another purpose, this upset the correct course of the state machine. Still, major items of new expenditure could not be covered by the old methods, and Peter for each of them was forced to create a special state tax. The army contained a major state revenue - customs and tavern fees collected was handed over to the new central office, town hall. For the content of the new cavalry, typed in 1701, it took to appoint a new tax ("dragoon money"), just as - and in the maintenance of the Navy ("Marine"). Then come join the tax for the maintenance workers for the construction of St. Petersburg, "rekrutnye", "underwater", and when these taxes are already familiar, and merge in the total amount of regular ("the accountant"), they are joined by new extra charges ("uplink" "neokladnye"). And these direct taxes, however, soon proved to be insufficient, especially as they were going pretty slow and a significant portion remained in arrears. Next to them were invented, so other sources of income.

The earliest invention of this kind - introduced on the advice of Alexei Alexandrovich Kurbatova stamped paper - did not produce the expected profits from it. The greater importance was the corruption of the coin. Minting silver coins in the coin of inferior merit, but the same face value, given by 946 thousand in the first three years (1701-03), from 313 thousand - in the next three, hence the foreign subsidies were paid. However, soon all the metal has been transformed into a new coin, and the value of its outstanding fell by half, thus spoiling the benefits of the coin was temporary and was accompanied by a huge injury, dropping the cost of general Treasury revenues (together with the decline of the value of coins).

New measure to increase treasury revenue was pereobrochka, in 1704, the old quit-rent papers and return on new rents and all possessory fisheries, home saunas, mills, inns were taxed dues, and the total number of state-owned revenue for this article went up to 1708 , with 300 to 670 thousand annually. Further, the Treasury took over the sale of salt, brought her up to 300 thousand in annual revenue, tobacco (this company was bad) and some other raw foods, produce up to 100 thousand annually. All of these special events to satisfy the main goal - to survive somehow difficult time.

Systematic reform of state institutions could not Peter in the years to give a moment's attention, as the preparation of the fight took all of his time, and required his presence in all parts of the state. In the old capital, Peter has to come only at Christmas, here resumed normal riotous life, but at the same debated and addressed the most urgent affairs of state. Poltava victory gave Peter the first time since the defeat of Narva opportunity to breathe freely. The need to understand the weight of individual orders of the first years of the war, became imperative, and the means of payment of the population, and resources are severely impoverished treasury, and in sight ahead of a further increase in military spending. From this position, Peter has found a familiar outcome for him: if money was not enough for everything they were supposed to be spent on the most important thing, that is, on military affairs. Following this rule, before Peter and simplifying the financial management of the country, passing the charges on individual areas directly into the hands of the generals, their costs, and avoiding the central institutions where the money had come for the old order.

In total it was easier to use this method novozavoevannoy country - in Ingria cast in "gubernatsiyu" Menshikov. The same method was extended to Kiev and Smolensk - to bring them into a defensive position against the invasion of Charles XII, in Kazan - to quell unrest in the Voronezh and Azov - to build a fleet. Peter had just summarize these partial orders when ordering (December 18. 1707) "rospisat chastmi city, except those in the 100. from Moscow - to Kiev, Smolensk, Azov, Kazan, Arkhangelsk." After the victory of Poltava, this vague idea of a new administrative and financial system in Russia has been further developed. The postscript to the central cities of items to collect any fees from them, assumed a preliminary determination of who and what to pay in each city. To bring in the famous contributors was appointed to the widespread census, to drive the popularity of payments were ordered to gather information from the previous financial institutions. The results of this preliminary work found that the state is experiencing a serious crisis. Census 1710 showed that, as a result of continuous sets and shoots from taxes, the payment of the state population is greatly diminished: instead of 791 thousand households, the census numbers up to 1678, new census counted only 637 thousand, throughout the north of Russia that bare up Peter the main part of the financial burdens, declining even reached 40%.

In view of this unexpected fact the government decided to ignore the new census figures, except in places where they were showing profits of the population (on the East and in Siberia), and all the other localities it was decided to levy taxes in accordance with the old, bogus numbers of taxpayers. And under this condition, however, it appeared that the payments do not cover the costs: the first is 3 million 134 thousand, the last - 3 million 834 thousand rubles. About 200 thousand would be covered by income from the salt and the remaining half were permanent deficit. During the Christmas convention generals Peter in 1709 and 1710 Russian cities were finally distributed among the eight governors, each in his "Province," collecting all the taxes, and directed them, first of all, the maintenance of the army, navy, artillery, and diplomacy. These "four seats" absorb the entire income of the state ascertained, as will cover the "province" other expenses, and above all their own, local - this question remains open. The deficit was eliminated simply by the reduction of the amount of government spending. Since the maintenance of the army was the main purpose of the introduction of "provinces", the further step of this new device was the fact that each province was responsible the content of certain regiments.

For constant intercourse with them, the province appointed to the shelves of their "commissioners." The most significant drawback of this device, introduced with effect from 1712, was the fact that it is virtually abolished the old central institutions, but they are not replaced by any other. Province directly communicated with the army and the higher military institutions, but above them there was no higher offices, which could be controlled and accept their functioning. The need for such a central agency could be felt as early as 1711, when Peter I had to leave Russia for the Prut campaign. "For his absences," Peter has created a Senate. Province were assigned to the Senate of its commissioners, "to pass to the demand and orders." But all is not determined with precision the mutual relations of the senate and provinces. All attempts to organize the Senate over the provinces of the same control over what orders had established in 1701 "Middle Office", ran a perfect failure. Irresponsibility was a necessary consequence of the governors that the government itself is constantly violated established in the 1710-12 years. orders of the provincial economy, the governor was taking money on the purposes for which it should have been paying them on the budget, freely dispose of cash sums and provincial governors demanded that more and more "devices", ie, increase revenue, even at the price oppression of the population.

The main reason for all these violations of established order was that the budget for 1710 fixed the number of necessary expenses, in fact, they continued to grow and do not fit within a budget. The growth of the army now, however, a few stopped, but the rapidly increasing costs of the Baltic fleet, built in the new capital (which the government in 1714 finally shifted his residence), to defend the southern border. Again I had to find new, extra-resources. Appoint a new direct taxes were almost useless, as old clothes, and getting worse and worse, to the extent of depletion of the population. Minting coins, state-owned monopoly and could not give more than what has already been given. In place of the provincial system, there is of itself the issue of restoration of the central institutions, the chaos of old and new taxes, "the accountant", "povsegodnyh" and "uplink", calls for the consolidation of direct taxes, taxes on the unsuccessful recovery of fictitious figures in 1678 leads to the question of new census and the assessor to change the units, and finally, state-owned monopolies, abuse of the system raises the question of benefits for the state of free trade and industry.

The reform is entering its third and final phase of up to 1710 it amounted to an accumulation of random orders, dictated by the need for a minute, and in 1708-1712 years. attempts were made to bring these orders into a purely external, mechanical connection, but now there is a conscious, systematic tendency to erect on theoretical grounds it is a new state building. The question of the extent to which Peter himself I was personally involved in the reforms of the last period, it remains as yet controversial. Archival study of the history of Peter I found recently a whole lot of "report" and the projects that was discussed almost all the contents of the governmental activities of Peter. The reports presented by Russian and foreign advisers, especially Peter I, voluntarily or by direct call to the government, the situation in the country and the most important measures needed to improve it are discussed very thoroughly, although not always based on sufficient acquaintance with the conditions of Russian life. Peter I myself have read many of these projects, and took from them all that right consistent with that interested him at this moment on - especially the question of increasing government revenues and the development of Russia's natural resources. In order to solve more complex problems of government, for example. trade policy, fiscal and administrative reform, Peter I did not have the necessary training, and his participation was limited to this formulation of the question, for the most part on the basis of verbal advice of any of the others, and work out the final wording of the law, all the interim job - picking up materials, development of and designing appropriate measures - was assigned to a knowledgeable person. In particular, in relation to trade policy, Peter I himself "more than once complained that, of all public affairs, for it is nothing more difficult to commerce, and that he was never able to gain a clear idea about the case in all its communications" (Fokerodt).

However, the state made it necessary to change the direction of former Russian trade policy - and the important role played by this advice of knowledgeable people. As early as 1711-1713 years. Government was represented by a number of projects in which it was proved that the monopolization of trade and industry in the hands of the Treasury hurt in the end, Fisk and myself that the only way to increase treasury revenue from trade - the restoration of freedom of trade and industrial activity. Around 1715 the contents of the projects become larger, in the discussion of issues are involved foreigners, verbally and in writing, inspiring the king and the government of the idea of European mercantilism - the need for the country's favorable balance of trade and the way to achieve it in a systematic protection of national industry and commerce by the opening of factories and plants, the conclusion of trade agreements and the establishment of trade consulates abroad.

Once mastered this point, Peter I, with his usual energy carries it in a variety of individual orders. It creates a new commercial port (St. Petersburg) and forcibly takes place from the old trade (Arkhangelsk), begins to build the first artificial water-way communications to connect St. Petersburg with Central Russia, intensely concerned about the expansion of active trade with the East (after his efforts in the West in this direction have been little success), gives privileges to the organizers of the new plants, writes from overseas artists, the best guns, best of breed of cattle, etc.

Less attention, Peter I refers to the idea of financial reform. Although in this respect is the life shows unsatisfactory practices in effect, and a number of projects submitted to the Government discusses the various possible reforms, however, he is interested in only a matter of how to expand the population of the contents of the new standing army. Already in the establishment of provinces, waiting, after the victory of Poltava, a speedy peace, Peter I supposed to distribute the shelf between the provinces, along the lines of the Swedish system. This idea comes up again in 1715, Peter I ordered the senate to calculate what it would cost the contents of a soldier and officer, giving himself to the Senate to decide whether to be covered this expense with the homestead tax, as it was before, or by poll, as we suggested different "snitching."

The technical side of the future tax reform developed by the government of Peter, and then with all the energy he insists on a speedy completion of the necessary reforms for the poll and the Census may soon implement a new tax. Indeed, the poll tax increases the number of direct taxes from 1.8 to 4.6 million, accounting for more than half the budget of the parish (81/2 million). The issue of administrative reform of Peter I care even less here and the thought and the development of, and enforcement of foreign-owned advisors (especially Henry Fiku), who suggested to Peter remedy the lack of central institutions in Russia, through the introduction of Swedish colleagues. When asked what primarily interested in Peter's in his Reformation work already Fokerodt responded very close to the truth, "he especially with all the jealousy and tried to improve their military forces."

Indeed, in his letter to his son Peter I stressed the idea that the military thing, "we are from out of darkness into the light, and (we) are not known in the world, is now revered." "War, Peter I occupied all my life (still Fokerodt), and concluded about these wars, treaties with foreign powers forced him to pay attention also to the foreign affairs, although he then relied mostly on his ministers and favorites... Himself and his favorite pastime was pleasant shipbuilding and other things related to seamanship. It amused him every day, and he had to give even the most important affairs of state ... On internal improvements in the state - the proceedings, the economy, income and trade - Peter I little or no care during the first thirty years of his reign, and been happy, if only his admiralty and army adequately supplied with money, firewood, recruits, sailors, provisions and ammunition."

Immediately after the victory of Poltava up Russia's prestige abroad. From Poltava, Peter I go straight to a meeting with Polish and Prussian kings, in the middle of December 1709, he returned to Moscow, but in the middle of February 1710 it again leaves. Half of the summer prior to taking Vyborg he spends on the beach, the rest of the year - in St. Petersburg, doing his rigging, and niece by marriage with the Duke Anna Ivanovna of Courland and his son Alexei Volfenbyuttelskoy the princess.

January 17, 1711, Peter I left St. Petersburg in the Prut campaign, then drove straight to Carlsbad for the treatment of water, and Torgau, to witness the marriage of Tsarevich Alexei. In St. Petersburg, he returned only to the new year. In June 1712, Peter once again left St. Petersburg for nearly a year, he went to the Russian troops in Pomerania, in October, is treated in Carlsbad and Teplice, in November, visiting Dresden and Berlin, returning to the troops in Mecklenburg, in early 1713 visited Hamburg and Rendsburg, rides in February through Hanover and Wolfenbьttel to Berlin for a meeting with the new king Frederick William, then returned to St. Petersburg.

A month later he was in the Finnish campaign, and returned in mid-August, continuing until the end of November to take the sea journey. In mid-January 1714, Peter I was leaving for a month to Revel and Riga, May 9, he again sent to the fleet, wins with a victory at Gangeude and returned to St. Petersburg on September 9. In 1715 from early July to late August is Peter I's fleet in the Baltic Sea. In early 1716 he left Russia for almost two years, 24 January, he went to Danzig, the wedding of her niece Katherine Duke of Mecklenburg, thence, via Stettin, went to Pyrmont for treatment, and in June went to Rostock to the galley squadron, with the which appears in July, Copenhagen, in October, Peter I went to Mecklenburg, thence to Gavelsberg for a meeting with the King of Prussia, in November - in Hamburg, in December - in Amsterdam, at the end of March next in 1717 - in France. In June, we see him at Spa, the waters in the middle of the field - in Amsterdam in September - in Berlin and Danzig, 10 October, he returned to St. Petersburg.

The next two months, Peter I lead a fairly regular life, devoting the morning papers at the Admiralty, and then traveling to St. Petersburg buildings. December 15, he went to Moscow, waiting for it Privoz son Alexei from abroad and 18 March 1718 travels back to St. Petersburg. Buried June 30 in the presence of Peter, Alexei Petrovich, in early July, Peter I already went to the Navy and, after a demonstration in the Aland Islands, where peace talks were held and returned to St. Petersburg on September 3, followed by three more went to the beach and once in Shlisselburg.

The following 1719 Peter I left on January 19 Olonets water, where he returned on March 3. May 1, he went to sea, and only returned to St. Petersburg on August 30. In 1720 Peter I spent the month of March at the Olonets waters and plants: from 20 July to 4 August sailed to the Finnish coast. In 1721 he traveled by sea to Riga and Revel (March 11 - June 19). In September and October, Peter Nishtadsky world celebrated in St. Petersburg, in December - in Moscow. In 1722 May 15 left Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and Astrakhan, 18 July, he sailed from Astrakhan in the Persian campaign (up to Derbent), from which he returned to Moscow only on December 11. Returning to St. Petersburg, March 3, 1723, Peter I have left on March 30 a new Finnish border, in May and June, he was engaged in naval equipment, and then a month left for Revel and Rogervik, which built a new harbor.

In 1724 Peter I suffered severely from illness, but it has not caused him to abandon the habits of nomadic life, which hastened his demise. In February he went to third on Olonets water in late March, went to Moscow for the coronation of the Empress, and from there travels to the water Millerovo and June 16, travels to St. Petersburg in autumn goes to Shlisselburg on the Ladoga Canal, and Olonets plants, then in Novgorod and Staraya Rusu to inspect the salt works: only when the autumn weather interferes decisively to swim in the ilmenite, Peter I returned (October 27) in St. Petersburg. October 28 he went to dinner at Pavel Ivanovich Yaguzhinsky on the fire that occurred on Vasilevsky Island; 29th dispatched Sesterbek water, and met on the road Grounded boat, waist-deep in water helps to remove its troops. Fever and fever prevented him from going farther, he sleeps on the ground and returned Nov. 2 in St. Petersburg. 5th he invites himself to the wedding of a German baker, 16th executes Mons, a 24-second engagement celebrates his daughter Anne to the Duke of Holstein. Entertainment resumes on the choice of a new Prince-Pope, 3rd and 4th January 1725.

Bustling life goes on until the end of January, when they finally have to resort to doctorsru, which Peter I until that time would not listen. But time is missed, and disease - incurable, January 22 erected an altar near the patient's room and partake of it, the 26th "for good health" of his release from prison convicts, and January 28, at quarter past five in the morning, Peter I die, not having to dispose of the fate of State.

A simple list of all the movements of Peter I in the last 15 years of his life already gives a feel for how to allocate the time Peter and his attention between classes of all kinds. After the navy, army and foreign policy, most of their energy and their worries Peter I devoted to St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg - Peter the private affair, carried out in spite of their obstacles of nature and the resistance of others. With nature have fought and died in this fight tens of thousands of Russian workers, resulting in the desert, inhabited by aliens outskirts, with the resistance of others coped very Peter I, orders and threats.

The judgments of contemporaries of Peter I of this undertaking it can be read from Fokerodta. The views on the reform of Peter I have an extremely diverged during his lifetime. A small handful of the closest associates held opinion, which was later formulated by Mikhail Lomonosov, the words, "he thy God, thy God, was Russia." People's weight, in contrast, was willing to agree with the dissenters that Peter I was the antichrist. Those and others proceeded from the general idea that Peter has made a radical revolution and created a new Russia is not similar to the former. The new army, navy, relations with Europe, finally, European and European appliances - these were the facts, it is striking, they recognize all the differing only radically in their assessment.

The fact that some thought be useful, while others recognize harmful to Russian interests, that some felt the great merit of the Fatherland, that others saw treason native tradition, and finally, where some saw a necessary step along the path of progress, while others simply recognize the deviation caused by the whim of a despot.

Both views could cause actual evidence in its favor, as in the reform of Peter I have mixed both elements - and the necessity and chance. The element of chance played out more as the study of history was limited to the outer side of Peter's reforms and the personal activities of the converter. Written in his history of the reform decrees must have seemed very personal affair of Peter. Other results of the study was to provide the same reform in connection with its precedents, as well as in connection with the terms of her current reality. Case Study of Peter's reforms showed that in all areas of public life - in the development of facilities and estates, in the development of education in an environment of private life - long before Peter I found those same trends, which makes the triumph of Peter's reforms. Being thus prepared for all the past developments in Russia and forming a logical result of this development, the reform of Peter I, on the other hand, if it still does not find enough soil in the Russian reality, and therefore when Peter is a long time in many formal and visible.

New Dress and "Assembly" does not lead to the adoption of European habits and social decorum; just as new, borrowed from Swedish institutions are not based on a corresponding economic and legal development of the masses. Russia is among the European powers, but only for the first time to almost half a century to become a weapon in the hands of European politics. Of the 42 tsifirnyh provincial schools open in 1716-22 years., Only 8 survive until mid-century, of the 2,000 recruited, mostly by force, students learn to do in 1727 to only 300 in the whole of Russia. Higher education, in spite of the project "Academy", and the lowest, in spite of all the orders of Peter I, remain for a long time dream. (Kamensky A.B.)

March 11, 1714 Emperor Peter I issued a decree on the study of children of nobles and clerks

By decrees of January 20 and February 28, 1714 Children of nobles and the rank of clerk, clerks, and clerks should be trained tsifir, ie arithmetic, and some of the geometry, and relied "a fine, which is not free to be married, yet learns of this," coronary memories are not allowed without the written certificate of training from the teacher. For this purpose it was prescribed in all the provinces in the episcopal houses and noble monasteries to start school, and teachers to send there students wound up in Moscow, about 1703 schools of mathematics, the then actual schools, the teacher was assigned a salary of 300 rubles a year on our money.

Decrees of 1714 introduced an entirely new fact in the history of Russian education, compulsory education for the laity. The matter was conceived in a very modest scale. For each province was assigned only two teachers from the schools of mathematics students, learned the geography and geometry. Tsifir, the initial geometry and the Khoi-any information on the law of God that fit into the then ABC - that's all part of elementary education, a recognized enough for the service, the expansion of its matter would be to the detriment of the service. Prescribed program of the children had to pass between the ages of 10 to 15 years, when the need ended the doctrine, because service is started.

Students were recruited from all over, as the hunters in those days the shelves, just to complement the institution. In Moscow's engineering school recruited 23 students. Peter I demanded to bring the set to 100 and even up to 150 people, only on condition that two-thirds were from the children of the nobility. Educational authorities failed to fulfill the requirements, a new decree angry - to collect missing 77 students from all ranks of people, and from tsaredvortsovyh children from the capital of the nobility, for whom at least 50 peasant households - by force.

Even more distinct acts of such a nature that time in the school and program of the Naval Academy. In this plan mostly noble and special technical institution of 252 students were only 172 of the nobility, and the rest - commoners. In the higher classes were taught astronomy large, flat and round navigation, and in the lower educated ABC 25 commoners, nobility of the Book of Hours 2 and 25 commoners, Psalms 1 of nobility, and 10 commoners, writing eight commoners.

Schooling has been furnished with numerous difficulties. Teach and learn, and even then it was hard, though the school has not been constrained by regulations and supervision, and the king engaged in war with all my heart Radel about the school. Lacked the necessary teaching aids, or they were very expensive. Treasury printing press, Printing House in Moscow, who published books, in 1711 i bought their own spravschika, proofreader, deacon Hermann need "for school affairs," the Italian lexicon for 17 Ѕ rubles in our currency. School of Engineering in 1714 demanded that the geometries Printing Place 30 and 83 books sinuses. Printing House released the geometry of 8 rubles a copy of our money, but the sinuses wills that they had not at all.

The school, which turned education of youth in training animals, could only push away from him, and helped to develop among his pupils a unique form of opposition - an escape, a primitive, yet sophisticated way to deal with the scholars of his school. School shoots with the levy became chronic illness Russian Public Education and the Russian national defense. This school desertion, the then form of learning the strike will be for us understandable phenomenon, without ceasing to be sad, if difficult imaginable to the language in which the teacher taught victuals issued to the clumsy and, moreover, difficult to extract text-books, to the methods of pedagogy that time, did not want like the students add to the view of government school teaching is not as a moral need of the society, as well as a full-service youth and prepares it to the compulsory service. When the school was regarded as a prelude to the barracks or office, then young people are taught to look at the school as a prison or penal servitude from which escape is always nice.

In 1722 the Senate published a nation-wide reduction of the highest decree ... The decree of His Majesty the Emperor and Autocrat of All-Russian announce publicly that from Moscow Naval School depended on the St. Petersburg Naval Academy, 127 students fled from what happened the loss of the monetary amount of academic, because these should students - scholarship holders, "alive, many of the summer and taking a salary, fled. " Ordinance gently invited the fugitives to come to the school within a specified time under threat of penalty for the gentry of children and more sensitive "punishment" for the lower ranks. By the decree was applied and a list of fugitives, as persons deserving of attention throughout the empire, which advertised that the nobility had fled from the 33 students, and between Prince Vyazemsky, the rest were children Reiter, the Guard soldiers, commoners to 12 knights of the slaves; because of that time was raznososloven school.

The case went wrong badly: children in new schools is not expelled, they were recruited by force, kept in prison and a guard, was 6 years old in few places these schools are settled, townspeople asked to go with their children from the Senate tsifirnoy science, so as not to distract them from their father's affairs; of the 47 teachers in the province sent eighteen students have not found and returned back, in Ryazan school, open only in 1722, scored 96 pupils, but 59 of them fled. Vyatka Chaadaev Governor, who wanted to open his province tsifirnuyu school, met opposition from the diocesan authorities and the clergy. To recruit students, he sent for the county Office of the Provincial troops, who seized all able to go to school and brought to Vyatka. The point, however, failed. Klyuchevskii V. Russian history. A full course of lectures in 3 books. Kn.3. - M.: Thought, 1993, p.94-95.

January 13, 1991 established the Day of the Russian press. Date associated with the birthday of the first Russian newspaper, founded by Peter I.

More about Peter I by Alexander Gomozova:

In March 1697, Peter left for 1 month-travel abroad to study various sciences and wrote tender letters out of his beloved wife and missed the entire Russian. But it came back a different person! He even lost a birthmark on his return to Russia! Suddenly he calls the Russian population of the animals, and even without seeing his family, tells sharpen the monastery, and in fact in prison, his wife and sisters. It destroys own Moscow strelets army, which, incidentally, has already crept persistent rumors that the king replaced...

Even before the arrival of Peter died under mysterious circumstances of his mentors and friends. Then Peter orders to kill his son Alexis! For what? To no one denounced substitution?

A fragment from the book: "The Return of heaven on earth" Part II, § 11. Satanic upheaval in Russia, a series of "In search of hidden", V.A. Shemshuk:

The most effective way to control us - the substitution of the head.

Meeting with the people of the old Orthodox faith, who could learn something by having access Spetskhran found new evidence confirming and committed in Russian Satanic coup. Let explain the essence without any references to sources, because the book and called in any special storage data is stored - so, sign them on the disappearance of the sentence.

I shall mention only one author - D.S. Merezhkovsky.

In his work "The Antichrist", he noted a complete change in appearance, character and psyche of Tsar Peter I after his return from the "German lands" where he traveled for two weeks and came back two years later. Russian embassy, accompanied the king consisted of 20 people, and led him Alexander Danilovich Menshikov. After returning to the Russian embassy is composed of one Dutch (including the notorious Frantsa Yakovlevicha Lefort), the only one of the old structure was only Menshikov.

It's "embassy" has brought a completely different king, bad speaking in Russian, does not recognize his friends and relatives, which immediately issued a substitution: This constrained Queen Sophia, the sister of the present king Peter I, raise the musketeers against the pretender.

As you know, strelets rebellion was brutally suppressed, Sophia hung on the Kremlin's Spassky Gate, the wife of Peter 1 imposter banished to a monastery, where she did not get there, and called her to Holland. "His" brother Ivan V and "his" young children[ru] Alexander and Natalia Lawrence Lzhepёtr killed immediately, even though the official story tells us about it quite differently. And the youngest son Alexei executed as soon as he tried to free his real father of the Bastille.

Peter impostor did such transformations to Russia that we are still halloo to one another. He began to act like an ordinary conqueror:

But its main crime - the destruction of the Russian education (image + Sculpture), the essence of which was to create a human three subtle bodies, which he gets from birth, and if they do not create, then consciousness does not arise due to the consciousness of the past lives. If the Russian educational institutions of the person doing wagon, which might, from the bast, and ending with the spacecraft, to do everything himself, Peter introduced the specialization that made him dependent on others.

Before Peter impostor in Russia we do not know what wine he ordered to roll out in the area of ​​barrels of wine and drink for free citizens. This was done to otshibaniya memory of a past life. During Peter's continued pursuit of born[ru] babies who remember their past lives and who can speak.

Stalking them started even with John IV. Mass destruction of babies who had the memory of the past life has left a curse on all the incarnations of such children. It is no accident today when a child is born speaking, he does not live more than two hours (but rarely Yet there are exceptions).

After all these acts themselves have long tongue invaders did not turn to call Peter the Great. It was only in the XIX century, when Peter had already forgotten the horrors, there was a version of Peter and innovators, who did so much useful for Russia, even brought from Europe potatoes and tomatoes, allegedly imported by there from America. Solanaceae (potatoes, tomatoes), were widely available in Europe and to Peter. They are endemic and very ancient presence on the continent confirmed by a large diversity of species, which required more than one thousand years.

On the contrary, we know that it was during the time of Peter was deployed campaign against witchcraft, in other words food culture (today, the word "magic" is used in a sharply negative value). Before Peter had 108 kinds of nuts, 108 kinds of vegetables, 108 kinds of fruits, berries 108 species, 108 species of nodule, 108 species of cereals, 108 kinds of spices and fruits, corresponded to 108 - Russian gods.

After Peter left the sacred unity of species used in food that a person can see himself. In Europe, it was done earlier. Especially strongly destroyed crops, fruits and nodule, because they were related to the reincarnation of man.

The only thing that made Peter an imposter, allowed to cultivate potatoes (potatoes, as well as tobacco (!) Belongs to the family Solanaceae. Plant, eyes and green potatoes are poisonous. Green potatoes contain very strong poisons, solanine, especially hazardous to health[ru] children), sweet potato and Jerusalem artichoke, which today are poorly eaten.

What happened to the Peter I?

He was captured by the Jesuits, and placed in the Swedish fortress. He was able to deliver a letter to Charles XII, King of Sweden, who rescued him from captivity. Together they organized a campaign against the impostor, but designed to fight all the Jesuit-Masonic brethren in Europe, with Russian troops (whose relatives were taken hostage in case the army will take in head to the side of Charles), I won at Poltava.

This Russian Tsar Peter I was again arrested and taken away from Russia - to the Bastille, where he later died. On his face he was wearing an iron mask, which caused a lot of talk in France and Europe. Breakfast is King Charles XII fled to Turkey, where he again tried to organize a campaign against the pretender.

It would kill this Peter, and there would be no hassle. But the fact of the matter, conquerors of the Earth needed a conflict, and without a living king, who is behind bars, did not succeed to any Russian-Swedish war, no Russian-Turkish, which is proving to have civil wars that led to the formation of two new states : Turkey and Sweden, and then a few more.

But the real intrigue was not only in the creation of new states. In the XVIII century the whole of Russia knew and said that Peter I - not a real king, but an impostor. Against this background, "the great Russian historian," who came from German lands: Miller, Bayer, and Kuhn Schlozer completely perverted the history of Russia, already is not difficult to declare all the kings of the False Dmitry Dmitriev and impostors who have no right to the throne (see: False Dmitry I, False Dmitry II), and who could not find fault, they changed the surname to the royal - Rurik.

Satanism is the genius of Roman law, the provisions in the constitutions of modern states. It was created in spite of all the ancient canons and notions of a society based on self-government (self + powers).

For the first time the judiciary was transferred from the hands of the priests in the hands of people who do not have spiritual dignity, that is, best power has been replaced by the power of anyone.

Roman law is presented to us as the "crown" of human achievement, in fact - etovershina disorder and irresponsibility. State laws under Roman law are built on prohibitions and sanctions, ie on negative emotions, which are known, they can only destroy. This leads to a general lack of interest in the execution of the laws and to the opposition of officials to the people. Even in the circus working with animals is based not only on the whip, but also for gingerbread, but the man on the planet below Rated conquerors animals.

Recall, as he wrote the Byzantine historian Procopius of Caesarea, the Slavs: "All the laws they had in mind." The relations in ancient society governed by the principles of Law, from which came to us the word "canon" (an ancient - Conan), "Since the dawn", "rest" (ie the stake).

Guided by the principles of Law, a person to avoid mistakes, and could be embodied again in this life. The principle is always above the law, since accommodates more features than the law, just as the proposal accommodates more information than a single word.

The word "law" means "outside the Law." If a society lives by the principles of Law, and not according to the laws, it is more vital. The commandments contain in themselves more than a game, and therefore superior to it, just as the story accommodates more than a proposal. Commandments are able to improve the organization and the human mind, which in turn will improve the principles of Law.

In contrast to the Roman law of the Russian empire was based not on the law forbids, and on the conscience of the citizens, which establishes a balance between incentives and prohibitions.

How to write a great Russian thinker, IL Solonevich, has learned from experience the delights of Western democracy, in addition to the long-lived Russian monarchy, resting on the Representation of the People (zemstvos), merchants and clergy (meaning pre-Petrine times), were invented democracy, and dictatorship, 20-30 years successive.

However, to give him the word "Professor Whipper not quite right when he says that the modern human sciences - it is only" theological scholasticism and nothing more"; This is something far worse: it is a fraud. It has a whole collection of fraudulent travel signals, inviting us into mass graves and executions of hunger, typhus and wars, internal and external rout ruin. "Science" Denis Diderot, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Jean d'Alembert Leron and others have already finished their cycle: there was a famine, terror had been the war, and the defeat of France was the appearance in 1814, in 1871, in 1940.

Science Hegel, Mommsen, Nietzsche and Rosenberg also finished its cycle: it was terror, there were wars, there was a famine and was the defeat in 1918 and 1945. Science Chernyshevskys, bay, St Michael, Milyukovs, Lenin and the whole cycle has not passed: there is hunger, there is terror, there were wars, both internal and external, but the defeat still come: the inevitable and imminent, another fee verbiage two hundred years, for Marshlight , lighted by our political thinkers of the most rotten in places of real historical swamp. "

Not always philosophers listed Solonevich themselves come to ideas that can destroy society: they are often prompted them...

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