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Sokrates (Сократ) — (Veins in 469-399 years B.C.), the Ancient Greek philosopher from Athenes, one of father dialectics. Found true by statement of leading questions (Socratic method). Stated the doctrine orally; the main source of data on its doctrine - compositions of its pupils Xenophon and Platon. A dialectics method used for search of true by statement of leading questions - so-called Socratic method (Maieutike).
The purpose of philosophy of Socrat - self-knowledge as a way to blessing comprehension; virtue is knowledge, or wisdom. For subsequent epoch Sokrates became an embodiment of an ideal of a wise man.
The first fundamental division of history of an ancient philosophy is connected with Socrat name on pre-sokrates and after-sokrates, reflecting interest of early philosophers of 6-5 centuries to physiophilosophy (the settled term for this period: «pre-sokrates»), and the subsequent generation of sophists of 5 centuries - to etiko-political themes, main from which education of the virtuous person and citizen. In the end of life Sokrates has been accused of «worship new deities» and «youth depravity» and it is sentenced to death (has accepted a poison Cicuta).
Sokrates was the son of the sculptor, all free time of a life spent in conversations with visitors sophists and Athenians on the themes which have become traditional for sophistical practice: that kindly also that angrily, that is perfect, and that defect is ugly, that virtue and that, whether it is possible to learn to be good and as the knowledge is got. We know about these conversations basically thanks to two authors - Xenophon and to Platon. Except their compositions are available also: fragments and certificates on the maintenance «Socratic dialogue» others adherent «Socratic dialogue» - Aischines, Fedon, Antisthenes, Eukleides, Aristipp; Socrat parody image in comedy Aristophanes of "Cloud" (it is put in 423 BC) and a number of remarks on Socrat at Aristotle, born generation after its execution. A problem of reliability of the image of person Socrat in the remained products - a key question of all researches on him.
The sophism was one of ancestors of the philosophical dialectics understood as a finding of true by means of conversations, i.e. Statements of certain questions and a methodical finding of answers to them. Charles Marx has named a sophism «a philosophy embodiment», «incarnate philosophy».
On the basis of various certificates from which the preference, is given «Socrat Apologia» and Platon's to early dialogues, usually specify at least three features Sokrates to philosophy:
Dialogue Socrat doctrines, sociable on the nature, had a following substantiation: Sokrates asserted, that he «knows nothing» and to become wise, he asks about all others. The method of interview it named maieutike, meaning, that only helps knowledge "birth", but itself is not its source: as not the question, and the answer is the positive statement "knowing" the interlocutor answering questions was considered. Usual receptions of conducting dialogue at Socrat: a refutation through reduction to the contradiction and irony - feigned ignorance, leaving from direct answers. According to platon "apologia", actually Sokrates, speaking "naked truth" about the ignorance, wished to specify in negligibility of any human knowledge in comparison with divine wisdom for only the god knows all.
During the maieutike conversations Sokrates ordinary resorted to a "prompting" method: since the most habitual and ordinary examples, he tried to bring the interlocutor to definition of discussed concept, that is to answer a question: «that is?» From beautiful things he suggested to pass to discussion of that there is a beauty, from courageous acts - to that there is a courage etc. As a rule, themes of its conversations concerned an ethical problematics.
Sokrates constant thought - that the correct behaviour and true knowledge cannot be separated from each other: it is impossible to arrive courageously or piously, not knowing, that such courage or piety. The act only then has moral sense when the person makes it consciously and on internal belief if he behaves well because, for example, «all so do» - that if «all» begin to behave badly the reasons will not be be virtuous. On Sokrates, not only truly moral (blessing) is always conscious, but also conscious - it is always good, and unconscious - it is bad. If someone arrives badly, means, he yet does not know how it is necessary to arrive (angrily - always the judgement error) and after his soul will be cleared of false prejudices, in it will be shown natural love to good, and is kindly axiomatic.
In the same way, as it is impossible to arrive well, not knowing virtue, and it is impossible to like really, not knowing, that such love and that should be a true subject of an inclination. A theme of love (Eros) and friendship - most well testified theme of reasonings of Socrat (Platon compare. «Feag» 128b: « I always say, that I know nothing, except unless one absolutely small science - a sensuality. And in it I am awfully strong »); this theme has been anyhow reflected in compositions of all adherent Sokrates - Antisthenes, Aischines, Fedon, Xenophon and Eukleides megarik. Except obviously present game by the words derivative from "to ask" and "like", the love theme was important as a psychological substantiation of identity of true and good: to wish to learn and be better thus certainly favourable to a recognised subject it is possible only liking it; and the greatest sense has love to the concrete person, more precisely, on Sokrates, to his soul, - in that measure in what it is virtuous or aspires to it.
In each soul there is a kind beginning as each soul has a demon-patron. Sokrates heard a voice of the «demonic», warning its or its friends (if they consulted on Socrates) to make those or other acts (it is remarkable, that «demonic» Socrat showed the prohibitive force only in cases of deadly threat for a life, in less important cases he was silent). Internal voice Sokrates considered as the original oracle by means of whom the god informs it the will - accordingly, Sokrates is not dared to disobey divine instructions. For this suspicious from the point of view of the state religion the doctrine in the end of a life he has been accused in not pious.
After defeat of Athenes in Peloponnessky war (in which course Sokrates became the participant of military battles three times) in 404-403 years in a city «the tyranny of thirty» in which head has risen Kritias, former listener Socrat has been established Prospartan. Though Sokrates did not co-operate in any way with the Spartan power during tyranny, after four years after overthrow of dictatorship Athenians have brought to Socrates to court on charge in shaking of foundations of the state, trying thus to find the reason of decline of the democratic power and easing of Athenes after «centuries Perikles».
Accusers was three: the young poet Grinds, tanning masterful Anita's owner and orator Likon; the text of a verdict of guilty informs Xenophon in «Memoirs on Sokrates»: «Sokrates it is guilty that does not recognise the gods recognised as the state, and enters other, new deities; it is guilty also that corrupts youth». Socrates protection on court became an occasion to a writing «Apologia», most known of which belongs to Platon. On court Sokrates sentence has drunk цикуту and has died in some minutes in full consciousness.
After Sokrates death in set have arisen socratic the schools founded by its pupils, there is a genre socratic the dialogue which character invariably is Sokrates, and "memoirs" on Socrat. Pupils wished to tell about person Sokrates to people, not having possibility its nobility during lifetime, and to understand, what value can have his life for those who never will see it. For this literature it was characteristic typifications of characters, their personal qualities and all events occurring to them so the shape of Socrat as a result available before us though is historically improbable, but it is interesting as a unique historical and cultural myth to which all new generations of philosophers addressed: «Sokrates the first has shown, that at any time and at any age, what to us neither occurred and what we nor did, - in a life always there is a philosophy place» (Plutarchos. Whether Should the old man study in state affairs). (М. А. Солопова)
The literature on Socrat: Xenophon Athenian, Sokratichesky compositions., Moscow - Leningrad, 1935; Platon, the Composition, т. 1 - 3, Moscow, 1968 - 72; Trubetsky S., the Collected works, volume 3, Moscow, 1910, page 398 - 461; Giljarov A., Sources about sophists. Platon as the historical witness, a part 1, K, 1891; Gomperc T., the Greek thinkers, it is translated from German, volume 2, St.-Petersburg, 1913, pages 32-88; Zhebelev S. A., Sokrates, Berlin, 1923: Serezhnikov V., Sokrates, Moscow, 1937; Losev A. F., history of an antique aesthetics. Sophists. Sokrates. Platon. Moscow, 1969; Ма ier H., Sokrates, Tubingen, 1913; Ritter С, Sokrates, Tubingen, 1931; Meunier М, La legende de Socrate, P., 196.
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