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Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin (Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин) (1934-1968) — Russia[ru] cosmonaut of the USSR (1961), Colonel, Hero of the Soviet Union[ru] (1961). Made the world's first flight into space on the spaceship "Vostok" lasting 1 hour 48 minutes.
Yuri Gagarin was born March 9, 1934 in Gzhatsk (now Gagarin) Gzhatsk (now Gagarin) District, Smolensk region. His mother, Anna Timofeevna and father, Alexei Ivanovich, were ordinary laborers from rural villages Klushino Gzhatsk district.
After the German occupation, the Gagarin family moved in 1945 from Klushino in Gzhatsk. After finishing school, Jura 30 September 1949 entered into a trade school Lubertsy 10, from which he graduated in June 1951 in the specialty molder-caster. 1951 - School of young workers in Lyubertsy (Moscow region).
In August Gagarin enrolled at the Saratov Industrial Technical School. 25 October 1954 started in Saratov flying club. In 1955, he graduated from the Saratov Industrial Technical School, and October 10 of the same year - Saratov Flying Club.
Since 1955, Gagarin - in the Soviet Army. From 1957 to enroll in the cosmonaut served as a fighter pilot in fighter aviation regiment of the Northern Fleet. Had qualified "military pilot 1st class."
October 27th 1957 Yuri Gagarin married Valentina Ivanovna Goriacheva, who became his faithful companion for many years. In their family grew two daughters - Lena (born 10 April 1959) and Galia (born 7 March 1961).
December 26 he was summoned to place a new destination: Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Northern Fleet. Learning about the recruitment of candidates for the test flight of a new technology, YA Gagarin 9 December 1959 wrote a report with a request to enroll him in a group, and after the call on December 18 leaving for Moscow, the Central Research Aviation Hospital for examination health.
3 March 1960 Lieutenant General Kamanin presented Commander Air Chief Marshal of Aviation Vershinin selected group of pilots - cosmonaut candidates.
March 11 Yu Gagarin with his family went to a new place of work, and from March 25 began regular classes in the cosmonaut training program.
12 April 1961 for the first time in human history Yuri Gagarin flew into space on the spaceship "Vostok". Gagarin orbited the earth in one hour 48 minutes and returned safely to the Earth. This flight has opened up a new era of humanity - the era of space exploration. Involved in teaching and training the crews of astronauts. For this feat, he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, and the day of Gagarin's flight into space was declared a holiday - the Day of Cosmonautics, since April 12, 1962.
On 23 May 1961 - commander of the cosmonaut. On December 20, 1963 - Deputy Head of the Cosmonaut Training Center. Understudy pilot spacecraft "Soyuz" (Vladimir Komarov) at the start April 23, 1967.
In 1966 Yuri was elected an honorary member of the International Academy of Astronautics, and in 1964 he was appointed commander of the detachment of Soviet cosmonauts.
17 February 1968 Yuri defended in the name of Professor Zhukovsky VVIA thesis project. State Examinations Commission awarded Colonel Y. Gagarin Pilot-qualified engineer-cosmonaut. Until the last days Gagarin acting deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
In honor of his native Gagarin Gzhatsk was perimenovan in Gagarin. His name will forever remain in the cosmos, he reinvented for mankind, one of the largest craters (diameter 250 km) on the back side of the moon is named after Gagarin. And that is symbolic - it is located between the crater Tsiolkovsky and the Sea of Dreams.
In 1968, the IAF established Gagarin Medal, which is awarded to individuals who have made a special contribution to aviation and space exploration.
Gagarin became a household name for the pioneers in any field of activity on
a par with the name of explorer
Christopher Columbus. Motto Gagarin became a phrase recorded them in his
diary shortly before his death,
March 12: "I have no greater desire than the desire to fly. pilot must fly. always fly."
March 27, 1968, he died under mysterious circumstances near the village Novoselovo Kirzhachsky Vladimir region during one of the flight training on the aircraft MiG-15 UTI. He was buried near the Kremlin wall on Red Square. In connection with the death of Gagarin in the Soviet Union was declared a national, not a head of state[ru].
Later, according to the declassified documents, according to the findings of the state commission, the most likely reason for the fall of the aircraft, according to the Presidential Archive, was a sharp maneuver of evading the balloon probe or, less likely, to prevent entry to the upper edge of the cloud cover. In the conditions of the complicated meteorological situation, this resulted in the aircraft getting into the supercritical flight regime and stalling.
April 12, 1961 in the Soviet Union launched into orbit around the Earth the world's first satellite-spaceship "Vostok" with a man on board.
Pilot-astronaut spacecraft-satellite "Vostok" is a citizen of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics pilot Major Yuri Gagarin.
Start space multistage rocket was successful and after dialing the first cosmic velocity and separation from the last stage rocket ship satellite launched free flight in orbit around the Earth.
According to preliminary data, the orbital period of the ship-satellite around the Earth is 89.1 minutes, minimum distance from the Earth (perigee) is equal to 175 kilometers, and the maximum distance (apogee) is 302 km, inclination of the orbital plane to the equator 65 degrees 4 minutes.
Weight-satellite spacecraft with pilot-cosmonaut of 4725 pounds, excluding the weight of the final stage of the launch vehicle.
With fellow cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin installed and maintained two-way radio. Frequency airborne shortwave transmitters comprise 9,019 megahertz and 20.006 megahertz, and in the range of VHF 143.625 megahertz. With the help of radio telemetry and television systems made monitoring of astronaut in flight.
Period of breeding, the ship-satellite "Vostok" in orbit, Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut comrade suffered satisfactorily and now feels good. Systems that provide the necessary living conditions in the cabin-satellite are functioning normally...
On April 12, 1961, at 9:17 Moscow time on the Vostok spaceship at 1055 hours, the senior lieutenant landed near the village of Smelovka in the Saratov region as a major. http://lenta.ru/oddly/2000/10/31/cosmonaut/
Before the flight into space, Russia cosmonauts always watch the film "The White Sun[hor] of the Desert". This custom appeared after the film was released in 1969.
Yuri Gagarin established another custom: on the way to the cosmodrome he wanted to go to the toilet, the bus was stopped, and Gagarin peeed through the hole in the suit in the desert. And now all the cosmonauts, without removing equipment, meet the need on the way to the cosmodrome.
The crew of Soyuz-TM, which started on October 31 from Baikonur, decided not to break the tradition. Together with the Russians Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev, "customs followed" and the American William Shepard, reports Reuters. "Why would we violate traditions? Perhaps in the future there will be new customs, but for now we will observe the old customs," Yuri Gidzenko said. http://lenta.ru/russia/2001/04/12/space/
Yuri Gagarin, officially considered the first cosmonaut of the Earth, was not the first. Prior to his flight, when trying to conquer space, three Soviet pilots were killed, an ex-senior engineer-experimenter OKB-456 Mikhail Rudenko told Interfax.
According to Rudenko, in 1957, 1958 and in 1959 from spaceport "Kapustin Yar" in the Astrakhan region were launched spacecraft piloted pilots Ledovsky, Shaborin and Mitkov. All these pilots were killed, and their names were never officially mentioned, Rudenko asserts.
According to Rudenko, these pilots participated in the so-called suborbital flights - that is, they should not have made a whole revolution around the planet, which Gagarin subsequently performed, and to fly along the parabola. And Ledovskikh, Shaborin and Mitkov were ordinary test pilots and did not undergo any special training.
"Apparently, after a series of tragic launches, the management of the manned space flight project decided to radically change the program and take a more serious approach to training pilots - to create a cosmonaut detachment," concluded Rudenko. www.ntv.ru/russia/12Apr2001/podrobnosti.html
The flight into space of Yuri Gagarin, as it turns out, was accompanied by
incidents that for a long time were classified and constituted a state secret.
On April 12, 1961, Colonel Nikolai Martemyanov provided communications with the
first cosmonaut. Never after that he did not give an interview, but today, in
honor of Cosmonautics Day, agreed to tell NTV the details of Gagarin's flight
that were unknown earlier.
According to Martemyanov, the preparation for the first flight was an emergency. Gagarin was put in the cabin of the spacecraft two hours before the start and then troubles began. It turned out that the entrance hatch did not close. Then Gagarin forgot to switch the toggle switch and disappeared from the ether. Martemyanov managed to do the impossible - with the help of a small radio station, he started broadcasting. Before the flight there was still enough time, and the general designer Sergey Korolev asked to include the bored cosmonaut music. Now it is precisely known that before the flight Gagarin listened to the songs of Bulat Okudzhava.
And then the starting countdown begins. Gagarin says his famous: "Let's go!". A primitive antenna, made of an army searchlight, regularly transmits signals to space. Svyazisty also prepare a cover act. If the rocket explodes, they must confuse American scouts. "Our duty was to continue the account," says Nikolai Martemyanov, "30 minutes is a normal flight," etc. Even if the missile already burned on the ground. "
Space television in those days was not there. Heads of flight heard Gagarin, but did not see him. During the time of Yuri Gagarin in space, 40 km of magnetic film was recorded. The coils were sealed and classified "top secret" for permanent storage.
Video: Start the "Vostok" with the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
|During the launch of the spacecraft sounded the famous replica of Gagarin "Let's go." He circled the globe for 1 h 48 min and returned safely to Earth. For this feat letchkik cosmonaut was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.|
|Yuri "On flight"|
|Iosif Kobzon "He said," Lets go" (Pahmutowa - N. Dobronravov)|
|Earring "Yuri Gagarin"|
|Oscar "How Yuri Gagarin"|
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