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The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 (Великая отечественная война) - the war of liberation of the Soviet people against Nazi Germany and its allies (Hungary, Italy, Romania, Finland); most important part of the World War II[ru].
Direct preparation for an attack on the Soviet Union[en], Germany began in 1940 (the plan "Barbarossa"). Together with its European allies, Germany has focused for the attack on the USSR 191.5 divisions; enemy forces totaled 5.5 million. people, about 4.3 thousand. tanks and assault guns, 47.2 thousand. guns and mortars, about 5 thousand. warplanes, 192 ships. Germany planned against the USSR "lightning war" ("Blitzkrieg").
The efforts of the Soviet Union in the 30s to create a system of collective security have failed. Non-aggression pact with Germany (August 1939) allowed to delay the beginning of the war. However, signed at the same time and at the conclusion in September 1939 treaty of friendship and the border with Germany secret protocols were incompatible with international law, undermine the prestige of the country. The country's defense has been undermined by the totalitarian regime pursued socio-economic policies, massive repression, coverage and military personnel, as well as major failures in military construction, in determining the likely timing of the start of the war, the main fault lies on what Stalin and his entourage. By June 1941 the Red Army had 187 divisions; in its composition was ok. 3 million. People, more than 38 thousand. Guns and mortars, 13.1 thous. Tanks, 8,7 thousand. Warplanes; in the North, Baltic and Black Sea Fleets numbered 182 ships and 1.4 thousand. warplanes. Soviet troops were not fully manned, tanks, planes, anti-aircraft, automobiles, engineering machinery; troops and command structure had a low level of training.
June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany treacherously attacked the Soviet Union. Creating on the direction of impact overwhelming, the aggressor broke through the defense of the Soviet troops seized the strategic initiative and dominance in the air. Border battle and beginning of the war (until mid-July) as a whole led to the defeat of the Red Army. She lost 850 killed and wounded thousands. Man 9.5 thousand. Pieces, St. 6 thousand. Tank, approx. 3.5 thousand. Aircraft; were captured approx. 1 million. People. The enemy has occupied much of the country, moved inland to 300-600 km, while losing 100 thousand. People killed, almost 40% of tanks and 950 aircraft.
June 23 was created Command Headquarters (August 8 - GHQ). All power was concentrated in the created June 30 the State Defense Committee (GKO). On August 8, Stalin became the Supreme Commander. The main military events of summer-autumn campaign in 1941 was the Battle of Smolensk, the defense of Leningrad and the beginning of its blockade, military catastrophe of Soviet troops in the Ukraine[ru], the defense of Odessa, the beginning of the defense of Sevastopol, loss of Donbass, the defensive during the Battle of Moscow. The Red Army retreated to 850-1200 km, but the enemy was stopped on the main lines of Leningrad, Moscow and Rostov and turned to defense. Winter 1941-42 campaign began counter-offensive on the western strategic direction. In the course of its counterattack carried out at Moscow, Luban, Rzhev-Vyazemskaya Barvenkovsky-Lozovskaya and Kerch-Feodosiya landing operation. Soviet troops withdrew a threat to Moscow and the North. Caucasus, eased the position of Leningrad, wholly or partly released in 10 regions, as well as St. 60 cities. The strategy of "blitzkrieg" collapsed. Was crushed approx. 50 enemy divisions.
Molotov's speech on the radio June 23, 1941.
In the summer-autumn campaign of 1942, Soviet troops had unrealistic goals: to completely defeat the enemy and liberate the entire country. The main military events unfolded in the south-west: the defeat of the Crimean front, military catastrophe of Soviet troops in the Kharkov operation, the Voronezh-Voroshilovgrad, Donbass, Stalingrad defensive operations, the battle on the North. Caucasus. In the north-western direction, the Red Army had Demyansk and Rzhev-Sychevka offensive operations. The enemy advanced on the 500-650 km, reached the Volga, took part of the passes of the Main Caucasian ridge. Was occupied territory, where lived before the war 42% of the population, producing 1/3 of gross production, there were more than 45% of the acreage. Economy translated into a war footing. In the east of the country was moved a large number of enterprises (only in the 2nd half of 1941 - 2593, in Vol. H. 1523 large) exported 2.3 million. Cattle. In the 1st half of 1942 was released 10 thousand. Aircraft, 11 thousand. Tank, approx 54 thousand. Guns. In the 2nd half of their output has increased by more than 1.5 times. Soviet-British agreement of July 12, 1941 Moscow conference of representatives of the USSR, the US and the UK (29 September - 1 October 1941), the Declaration of 26 states from January 1, 1942 a military alliance of countries who fought against fascism, the Soviet-American agreement on June 11, 1942 formalized the core anti-Hitler coalition.
The text of Stalin's order «Not a step back!».
In the winter campaign of 1942-1943 were the major military events of Stalingrad and North Caucasian offensive, break the siege of Leningrad. The Red Army moved west to 600-700 km, freeing the territory of more than 480 km2, crushed 100 divisions (40% of enemy forces on the Soviet-German front). Created favorable conditions for the completion of the Allied offensive in North Africa, Sicily and Southern Italy.
In the summer-autumn campaign of 1943 was a decisive event in the Battle of Kursk. The important role played by the guerrillas ("Operation Rail war"). During the Battle of the Dnieper were released 38 thousand. Populated areas, in Vol. H. 160 cities; with the capture of the strategic bridgehead on the Dnieper created the conditions for an offensive in Belorussia. In the battle for the Dnieper guerrillas carried out an operation "Concert" for the destruction of enemy communications. On the other. Directions implemented Smolensk and Bryansk offensive operations. Red Army has fought its way up to 500-1300 km, crushed 218 divisions. An important stage in the development of international and inter-allied relations became Tehran Conference (28 November - 1 December 1943).
In the winter campaign of 1943-1944, the Red Army conducted an offensive in the Ukraine (10 simultaneous and successive front-line operations, joint general plan), has completed the rout of Army Group "South", came out on the border with Romania and suffered fighting on its territory. Almost simultaneously turned Leningrad-Novgorod Offensive; Leningrad was finally released. As a result of the Crimean operation liberated Crimea. Soviet troops advanced to the west to 250-450 km, released about 300 thousand. Km2, reached the state border with Czechoslovakia.
In June 1944, the Allies discovered the 2nd front in France, which worsened the military and political situation in Germany. In the summer-autumn campaign of 1944, Soviet troops had Belarusian, Lvov-Sandomierz, East Carpathian, Iasi-Chisinau, Baltic, Debrecen, Eastern Carpathian, Belgrade, Budapest and partly Petsamo-Kirkenes offensive operations. Completed the liberation of Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic states (except for some areas of Latvia), part of Czechoslovakia, forced to surrender and went to war against Germany, Romania and Hungary, have been released from the occupants of the Soviet Arctic and northern regions of Norway. 4-11 February 1945 Yalta Conference was held Crimean leaders of the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Campaign 1945 in Europe included the East Prussian, Vistula-Oder, the completion of Budapest, East Pomeranian, Lower Silesia, Upper Silesian, West-Carpathian, Vienna and Berlin operations, which resulted in the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. After the Berlin operation Soviet troops together with the 2nd Army of the Polish Army, the 1st and 4th Romanian armies and the 1st Czechoslovak Corps had Prague operations. June 24 in Moscow Victory Parade was held. At occurred in July - August, the Berlin conference of the three great powers had agreed on the postwar world in Europe.
Accepting surrender, the Soviet Union did not sign peace with Germany, that is, stayed with Germany in a state of war. The war with Germany was concluded on January 21, 1955 by the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Nevertheless, the Day of Victory is May 9 - the day of signing the Act of unconditional surrender of Germany.
August 9, 1945 the Soviet Union, fulfilling allied obligations, began military operations against Japan. During the Manchurian operation Soviet troops defeated the Kwantung Army, liberated South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. September 2, 1945, Japan signed the act of unconditional surrender.
On the Soviet-German front were defeated and captured 607 enemy divisions, destroyed 75% of its military equipment. According to various reports, Wehrmacht losses amounted to 6,000,000. To 13.7 million. Man. The USSR lost approx 27 million. Man in t. H. 11.3 million. Man at the front, 4-5 million. Partisans, many people were killed in the occupied territories and in the rear. In Nazi prisoner of war turned out approx 6 million. man. The material damage amounted to 679 billion. Rubles. In severe bloody war the Soviet people made a decisive contribution to the liberation of the peoples of Europe from the fascist yoke. Victory Day (May 9) is celebrated every year as a national holiday and a day of remembrance for the victims.
In the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet troops entered the 28th reserve army, in which the drawing force for the guns were camels. It was formed in Astrakhan during the fighting at Stalingrad: the lack of cars and horses forced to fish in the vicinity of wild camels and tame them. Most of the 350 animals died on the battlefield in various battles, and gradually transferred to the surviving part of the household and "demobilized" in zoos. Two camels named Yasha and Masha and the soldiers came to Berlin.
On the night of April 30, May 1, 1945, on the roof of the Reichstag in Berlin, Soviet scout soldiers of the 150th Kutuzov Order of the 2nd degree Idritskaya Rifle Division hoisted the Banner of Victory. The glory of the first standard-bearers was given to Mikhail Egorov and Meliton Kantaria. Punctured with bullets, blood-stained, the red banner became a sacred relic.
And in the Moscow newspaper Pravda on May 3, 1945, photographs of the burning Reichstag with the banner of the Victory over its dome were published. But in Berlin there were still battles, in the Reichstag itself were seized and fired by separate groups of fascists, and the pictures have already become historical.
The idea to hoist a red banner over the capital of defeated Germany was voiced by Stalin at a solemn meeting on November 6, 1944. This idea was also supported by the Military Council of the Army. According to the general opinion, the flag above the Reichstag symbolized the final collapse of Nazism. At the same time, on the model of the state flag of the USSR, nine banners were urgently manufactured - there were as many divisions as were part of the 3rd Shock Army.
5, which became
the Banner of Victory, was carried by a group of three fighters, led by Senior
Sergeant Ivanov. Ivanov was mortally wounded by a breakthrough to the upper
floors of the building. But Sergeant Yegorov and junior sergeant Kantaria, who
were covered by their brother-soldiers, were able to hoist the banner. In the
late evening of April 30, 1945, a red flag fluttered over the roof of the
Reichstag, and after that two more were raised.
In June 1945, the main symbol of the Victory was taken to Moscow, and on June 22 he entered the museum. This is an ordinary assault flag, which initially was only an image of a sickle and a hammer. According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of April 15, 1996, the Victory Banner raised above the Reichstag in May 1945, along with the State Flag of the Russian Federation, is being carried out on Victory Day, laying wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, holding ceremonial meetings, parades of troops and processions of the Great Veterans The Patriotic War on Red Square in Moscow.
|The Great Patriotic War 1941-1945|
The Great Patriotic War began with the invasion of the German fascist troops on the territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, June 22, 1941, in violation of the conditions of non-aggression treaty.
War has become an important part of the war, which affected its change. The role of the Soviet people in the struggle against Nazi Germany can not be overemphasized.
|«Started Great Patriotic War»|
|«Summary News October 30, 1942»|
|«Breaking the blockade of Leningrad January 18, 1943»|
|«Victory at Stalingrad February 2, 1943»|
|«On the release of Dnepropetrovsk»|
|«Moscow Fireworks Sevastopol»|
|«From the Soviet Information Bureau, March 15, 1945»|
|«On the capture of Berlin May 2, 1945»|
|«On the surrender of Germany»|
|«A minute of silence, remember»|
|"Farewell Slav" — march|
|«Katyusha» (M. Blanter - M. Isakovsky), App. T. Syniavska|
|«Dark night», App. Ivan Kozlovsky|
|«Victory Day», App. Joseph Kobzon|
|«Bow to those great years», App. Joseph Kobzon|
|«The national war» — melody|
|«Road to Berlin» — Leonid Utyosov|
|«Beats in close stove fire» — Leonid Utyosov|
|«Dark night» — Utyosov|
|«Guerrilla beard» — L.O. Utyosov|
|«The nameless heights» — Mark Bernes|
|«Dark night» — Mark Naumovich Bernes|
|«Want to whether the Russian war» — Bernes|
|«Cranes» — M. N. Bernes|
|«We need one win», App. Nina Urgant, music Alexandra Pakhmutova|
|«Unknown soldier» — Maya Kristalinskaya|
|«Enemies have burnt native hut» — Irina Muraveva|
The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation presented a unique information resource open access, fills all available military archives documents about the course and outcome of major combat operations, deeds and rewards all the soldiers of the Great Patriotic War. The main objectives of the project are to perpetuate the memory of all the heroes of Victory, regardless of rank, scope feat status awards, military-patriotic education of youth on the example of the military exploits of the fathers, as well as the establishment of the factual basis for countering attempts to falsify the history of warfare. Creating the most complete electronic bank documents on the key period of the history of modern civilization is unique in terms of historical and social significance, and is an eternal monument to the great feat of the people.
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