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Russia

Economy, government, population, geography, history, flag, emblem, anthem

Russian Flag
Russian Flag

Russia (Russian Federation) (Россия) — a country[ru] in Eastern Europe and North Asia (occupies most of them); borders with Korea, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine[ru], Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Norway. The area of ​​17,075,400 km2 (the first in the world); population of 141.9 million. man (2008, ninth in the world); 1095 cities 2270 towns (2007). Capital — Moscow (10.5 million.); major cities: St. Petersburg (4.7 million.), Novosibirsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinburg, Samara, Omsk, Kazan, Ufa, Chelyabinsk, Rostov-on-Don, Perm, Volgograd.

Russian flag

Flag of the Russian Federation was adopted December 8, 2000. Officially, the white-blue-red flag was adopted as the official (State) flag of Russia on the eve of the coronation of Nicholas II in 1896. Prior to this, the national flag of the Russian Empire was considered the black-yellow-white flag.

Russian Anthem

National Anthem of the Russian Federation shall be performed in strict accordance with the approved music and text.

During the official performance of the National Anthem of the Russian Federation present to stand and men — no headgear.

Music by Alexander Alexandrov, Sergei Vladimirovich Mikhalkov words.

Russia - our sacred state,
Russia - our beloved country.
A mighty will, a great glory -
Yours forever for all time!

Hail, our free,
Ancient union of brotherly peoples,
Ancestor-given wisdom of the people!
Glorious, country! We are proud of you!

From the southern seas to the polar region
Spread our forests and fields.
You are one in the world! You are one such -
Protected by God native land!

Hail, our free,
Ancient union of brotherly peoples,
Ancestor-given wisdom of the people!
Glorious, country! We are proud of you!

Wide spaces for dreams and for life
Open to us coming year.
Gives us strength, our loyalty to the Fatherland.
So it was, is and always will be!

Hail, our free,
Ancient union of brotherly peoples,
Ancestor-given wisdom of the people!
Glorious, country! We are proud of you!

"Anthem of Russia" by the choir and symphony orchestra
"Anthem of Russia" in instrumental version
Glory, glory to you my Rus (the true Russian national anthem), Glinka
Russian national anthem in rock processing (Alexandrov, Rastorgouev)
Sports hymn "Come, Russia"
Hymn of the Russian team "It's hockey"
by "Ocean", "Anthem of Russia's children"

Russian coat of arms

Russian coat of armsCoat of Arms of the Russian Federation - with December 20, 2000. The coat of arms is a golden double-headed eagle on a red heraldic shield above the eagle - three historical crowns of Peter the Great (above their heads - two small and over them - one larger); in the clutches of an eagle - a scepter (rod, one of the signs of monarchical power) and power; on the breast of the eagle on a red shield - a horseman slaying a dragon.

 

Russian polity

Russia - a democratic federal state with a republican form of government. The current Constitution of Russia approved in a national referendum December 12, 1993. The official (state) language throughout the Russian Federation - Russian. Peoples of the Russian Federation shall be guaranteed the right to preserve their native language. Head of State - President of the Russian Federation, Russian citizens elected for four years by universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Representative and legislative organ of the Russian Federation (its Parliament) - The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers: the State Duma and the Federation Council. Executive power is exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation headed by the chairman, appointed by the President with the consent of the State Duma. In the Russian Federation (2007) 85 subjects of the Federation: 21 republics, 8 edges, 47 regions, 2 federal cities - Moscow and St. Petersburg, one autonomous region and 6 autonomous regions. The whole territory is divided into seven federal districts.

Agreements between the Russian Federation and the Federation - bilateral or multilateral agreements between domestic regulatory federal authorities of the Russian Federation and the authorities of the Russian Federation, regulate federal relations within the limits established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The possibility of concluding such contracts stipulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

The legal basis for the conclusion of contracts vnutrifederalnyh are constitutional provisions that allow for mutual delegation of powers between the executive authorities of the Russian Federation and the executive authorities of the Russian Federation, if it does not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

Russia's population

Russian (116 million) accounted for 80% (2002 census); home to 156 people (the largest (more than 1 million. people) - Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Chechens, Germans. The city has a population of 106,400,000 (73% according to the 2002 census), rural - 38.8 million people. a fifth of the population lives in cities of over a million people. The average age of the population - 37.7 years (2002).

The main religion - Orthodox Christianity (90% of the faithful), others - Muslims, Buddhists. The population density of 8.5 people per square kilometer (most of the territory, 70% are unsuitable for the life of the Far North and equated, where only 8% of the population).

The geographical position of Russia

Most of the European territory of Russia is located within the East European Plain. In the south - the northern slopes of the Caucasus, in the northwest - Khibiny mountains. To the east of the Urals - the West Siberian plain bordered on the south by mountains of Southern Siberia (Altai, Sayan mountains Baikal region, Transbaikalia, etc.). Between the Yenisei and Lena there is the Central Plateau, between the Lena and the Pacific Ocean - ridges and uplands Northeastern Asia.

The climate of Russia varies from the sea in the far north-west to sharply continental in Siberia and the Far East monsoon. Average January temperatures from 0 to -50 ° C, in July from +1 to +25 ° C. Rainfall ranging from 150 to 2000 mm per year. In many areas of Siberia and the Far East - permafrost.

The largest rivers are Lena, Irtysh, Yenisey, Ob, Volga, Amur; the largest lake - the Caspian (Sea), Baikal, Ladoga, Onega.

On the territory of Russia (from north to south) Zone: Arctic desert, tundra, forest-tundra, forest, steppe, steppe, semi-desert (Caspian Lowland).

Russia's economy

Russia - industrial-agrarian country, whose territory is divided into 12 major economic regions (North, Northwest, Central, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Volga, North Caucasus, Urals, Western Siberia, Eastern Siberia, Far East, Kaliningrad region.). In the structure of the national income (1994,%): 29 Industry, agriculture 7, construction 7.7, transport and communication, logistics, procurement, and others. - 34.0. Deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, apatite, potash, phosphate, non-ferrous, rare and precious metals, diamonds, and others. 85 nature reserves and 25 national parks (1993). Currency - the ruble.

Mining (1996), oil (including gas condensate) 2.1 million. Barrels (mainly West-Siberian and Volga-Ural provinces), natural gas 583 billion. Cubic meters, coal 326.8 million tons (Kuznetsk, Pechora, Kansk-Achinsk, South Yakutia basins), iron ore 76 million tons (Kursk magnetic anomaly field Urals and Western Siberia).

Large black (steel production 58.3 million tons, 40.5 million tons of pig iron - Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, Nizhny Tagil, Novokuznetsk, Cherepovets, Lipetsk et al.) And color (Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk and others.) Metallurgy. Deposits of diamonds in Yakutia.

Mechanical engineering (heavy, general, secondary production, precision machinery and instruments et al.); major centers - Moscow, St. Petersburg, the Urals, the Volga region, Western Siberia. Chemical and petrochemical industry (production of plastics, fertilizers, chemical fibers, tire); The major areas of chemical industry: Central, Northwest, Volga and Ural. Timber industry developed in the northern and eastern parts of the country. Manufacture of building materials, light industry (mainly textile) and food industry.

Electricity generation 860 billion. KWh (1995). In Russia function Integrated Energy Systems Center, North-West, the Volga region, the North Caucasus, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East, the coun-tries. Along with numerous thermal power stations of the Volga-Kama and Angara-Yenisei hydropower cascades, a number of nuclear power plants.

Agricultural land accounts (1994, mln. Ha) 219.6, in Vol. H. 132 300 000 hectares of arable land, hayfields, 23.2, 64.7 pastures. More than four-fifths of the total arable land accounts for Central and Central Black Earth regions, the Volga region, the North Caucasus, the Urals and Western Siberia. Agriculture provides 36% of the gross output of agriculture, animal husbandry over 60%. In 1993 the sown area of crops 111.8 million Hectare.

The main crops in Russia: grain, sugar beets, sunflowers, potatoes, flax. Gross harvest (1997): grain 86,800,000 metric tons, sugar beet 25.5 million. Tons, sunflower 7.8 million. Tons, 37.7 million tons of potatoes, flax 0,060,000 tons. The main areas of cultivation of wheat - the Volga region, the North Caucasus, Western Siberia, the Urals and Central Black Earth regions; flax - Central and Northwest regions; sunflowers - North Caucasus, the Volga region and Central Black Earth region; sugar beet - Central Black Earth region and the North Caucasus.

The share of irrigated land 4%, mainly the North Caucasus and the Volga region (1994). Meat and dairy and meat and wool farming. Livestock (1997 million): cattle 35.8, 19.5 pigs, sheep and goats 43.7. Operating length (1996, thousand kms) railways 152, Road 949, in Vol. H. Of paved 725, 206 of the main pipelines, inland waterways 101. The tonnage of merchant marine approx. 10 million gross tons. Water system: the White Sea-Baltic Canal, Canal. Moscow, the Volga-Don canal, Volga-Baltic Waterway. The major seaports - St. Petersburg, Vanino, Novorossiysk, Murmansk, Kaliningrad. Major cities of auto - Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk, Adler, Mineral Waters. In Russia, more than 100 resorts. National significance are the resorts on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus (Sochi), a group of resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters.

History of Russia

On the part of Russia emerged in the 1 st millennium. BC. e. Bosporus state, Scythian state. In 552-745 years of Russia's territory occupied state tribal alliance Turks - Turk Empire. In the middle 7 - the end of 10 centuries in the Lower Volga, North Caucasus, Azov state possesses the Khazar Khanate. In the early 8. - 926 in the Far East there was a state Bohai. In the 10-14th centuries. in the Middle Volga and Kama was the Volga-Kama Bulgaria. In the 9th century. Old Russian state was formed. Approx. 988 adopted Christianity as the state religion of Russia.

In the 12-14 centuries. there existed the Novgorod republic, Vladimir-Suzdal, Galicia-Volyn principality and other. In the 13th century. Russian principalities, the Volga-Kama Bulgaria suffered the Mongol invasion (1237-1242), Swedish and German aggression (Battle of the Neva, 1240, Battle of the Ice, 1242). Almost 250 years of Mongol-Tatar yoke finished with the exile invaders combined forces of the Russian lands (Battle of Kulikovo, September 8, 1380, "Standing on the Ugra", 1480).

In the 14-16 centuries formed around Moscow Russian centralized state, including in all the land of the North-East and North-West Russia. In the late 16th - mid-17th century. took shape serfdom. In the early 17th century. Russia recognized the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish interventions. In the mid-17th century. Ukraine became part of the Russian state. Strengthening feudal exploitation caused uprisings and peasant wars (early 17th c., 1670-1671, 1707-1709, 1773-1775). Peter's reforms (the end of 17 - the first quarter of the 18th century.) Contributed to the socio-economic and cultural development of the country, the victory in the Northern War of 1700-1721., Which gave access to the Baltic Sea. As a result of the accession to the 16-19 centuries. the North, the Volga region, the Urals, Siberia, the Far East, joining Russia a number of non-Russian peoples formed a multi-ethnic state.

Russia has reflected the invasion of Napoleon in the Patriotic War of 1812. The reform of 1861 abolished serfdom, promoted social and economic development. In 1898, the RSDLP was created in the early 20th century. any other political party (the Cadets, Octo, SRs et al.), the trade unions; then the State Duma. Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905. contributed to the Revolution of 1905-1907. in Russia. Russia took part in the First World War 1914-1918[ru]. During the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew the monarchy.

November 7 (October 25, Old Style), 1917 October revolution of 1917. Proclaimed by the power of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. At the same time there was a violent liquidation of some political parties, resulted in a monopoly of political power by the Communist Party, gradually merged with the centralized state apparatus. The Civil War and military intervention of 1917-1922 gg. contributed to the approval of the military-communist principles of social organization of production and distribution ("War Communism"). In January 1918, was formed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). In 1921 it adopted a new economic policy (NEP). December 30, 1922 together with the Russian Federation and Ukraine (Ukraine), Belarus (BSSR) and republics of the Caucasus (ZSFSR) formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

In 1941, the Great Patriotic War[ru] against Nazi Germany, which claimed millions of lives (according to some estimates, about 30 million. People). After the war ended in May 1945, the restoration of the destroyed economy. In 1985-1991 gg. the country pursued a policy of restructuring aimed at radical socio-economic transformation. But the purpose of the restructuring were not achieved. In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed.

A year before the collapse of the June 12, 1990 the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Federation. March 17, 1991 at the Russian referendum the post of President of the Russian Federation (in the same year was elected the first president Boris Yeltsin).

Since December 1991 Russian part of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In December 1993, adopted the Constitution of the Russian Federation; elections to the Federal Assembly.

National holiday - Day of Russia on 12 June. (Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius)

Record facts Russia

7 reasons to stay in Russia

This material is addressed to people who regularly visit the momentum "It's time to throw." Dear citizens, sooner sit on suitcases. In Russia, everything will be fine! (Alex Pleshanov)

1. "prophetic" reason

Many Orthodox elders, both Russian and Athos, predicted a great future for Russia in the "end times." Virtually all the prophecies of the holy agree that Russia will regain its former glory, and even become a new ark. We present here a quote Reverend Lawrence Chernigov, Russian saint and seer: "... there will be a spiritual explosion! And Russia, along with all the Slavic peoples and lands will be a mighty kingdom. Nourish it is God's Anointed King Orthodox. Thanks to him, in Russia will disappear all schisms and heresies. The persecution of the Orthodox Church will not. Lord have mercy on Holy Russia because it has been a terrible time Antichrist. Russian Orthodox Tsar-Autocrat will fear even the antichrist. And all other countries except Russia and the Slavic lands to be ruled by the Antichrist and experience all the horrors and torments written in the Scriptures. In Russia, however, will be prosperity and triumph of faith, but only for a short time, for the Last Judge will judge the living and the dead.

2. "transcendent" reason

In 1902, the famous American clairvoyant Edgar Cayce fell into a trance and saw the following picture. City of the western and eastern coasts of the United States are in ruins; Japan went completely under the water, and the UK - half. Where the flood, where volcanoes and earthquakes, epidemics... Only Russian territory represented in this island of prosperity ruin. Casey long pondered his terrible vision, and came to the conclusion that all the destruction will take place in the XXI century due to global natural disaster, which almost touches the territory of Western Siberia, which will be a new ark, where will the new revival of civilization. It is interesting that, according to the clairvoyant, harsh Siberian climate in the XXI Century considerably softened with pine cones here will grow mangoes, bananas and pineapples.

Of course, seeing Casey looks exotic, but it is worth to take it carefully - this American clairvoyant predicted the start of the two world wars, the establishment of the State of Israel, the independence of India, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and much more.

3. "Freshwater" reason

Scientists estimate that probably 25 years, the world expects hard "freshwater" crisis caused by an acute shortage of fresh water. Most likely, after 10 years, the water becomes a commodity like oil. So, Russia is the richest freshwater power with almost half of all the world's reserves of water. Baikal alone represents 20% of water supplies.

In this regard, remember one simple chain of logic, and we will remember it every time when the temptation to leave his homeland: "Water - is the life! Russia - water! Russia - this is the life! "

Note.

Currently, there are already business plans for the sale of clean water and the Siberian Baikal ice. These are two separate projects, and in terms of money each will give more income than it is now Russia earns from oil sales. This will increase Russia's GDP by 2-4 times. For example, in the US a ton of food ice costs 7 times more expensive than gasoline. In some countries, a liter of clean water costs more than a liter of 98 octane gasoline. Implementation of this project will allow anyone to give Russia on exports of non-renewable hydrocarbons, leaving them to their descendants and to get off the raw needle. These bottomless resources - water and cold awarded us Mother Nature.

For more on this listen to recordings of videoconferences, which holds an economist, director of planning and development of the company RSW - a new generation of transport, Ph.D. Serey A. Sibirjakov. With the help of RSW is possible to implement the globally unique project in which everyone can take their part, provide a comfortable and secure life for themselves and their loved ones and their descendants (see details on the website of Sky Way).

4. "Arctic" reason

As you know, the Arctic ice is rapidly melting. On the one hand, it's not very good for the polar fauna, and on the other - it opens up new economic opportunities for our country. According to estimates of the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources, freed of ice territory claimed by Russia, may contain up to 586 billion barrels of oil. For comparison, all current proven oil reserves of Saudi Arabia, the world's main supplier of oil, make up only 260 billion barrels. In other words, no pants we will not stay.

In addition, the melting of glaciers in the Arctic opens up new prospects in the shipping industry. For example, the path through the Arctic (in the future "neledovity") ocean shorten the distance between Rotterdam and Yokohama from 11 to 200 nautical miles (the length of this voyage through the Suez Canal) until 6500 - more than 40%. That is, the release of ice in the Arctic territory fundamentally change the current structure of world trade. In favor of Russia, of course, which has the biggest coastal area in the Arctic.

5. "geopolitical" reason

Due to its geographical location and the expanses of Russia is the only country in the world that can not be fully occupy. This is, for example, constantly reminded the German Kaiser Otto Bismarck, as well as other great military strategists.

We can not be driven into a corner: you can only move a little to the borders. And then we otdyshites, type forces and the pursuit of the enemy to "Paris yes Berlin."

6. "Collective" reason

The Russian people are different collectivism, Catholic. The feeling of one team may be latent, dormant, the state for decades, but in the most difficult hour, we, Russian (and only we) can quickly be mobilized in the most terrible moment in "single Russian soul" and to experience trouble. So it was in the Great Patriotic War, as it was in the Great Patriotic War, it will always be ... The future promises to be challenging, new wars, new disasters, and experience the challenges of history better with the native people, whom the Lord gave an amazing life immunity.

7. "Soul" reason

In Russia, they say, "where he was born there and handy." And it's not just words. Russian people differ fine mental structure that will never make it to their pragmatic nor West or in the "relaxed" East. Ethnopsychology say that immigrants from Russia most heavily socialized in Western countries - "Russian gene" is very resistant to all the benefits of European civilization. Even the "hardened" Westerners, leaving the "Raska" begin to suffer bouts of nostalgia, because only with a Russian man can talk heart to heart. And in another way, and we do not know how.

What is Russia according to psychics

Mother Russia is respected and hate, curse and regret, stolen and recovered - it's all we do its citizens and no one knows when it will end. And that's what people think about this psychics...

American clairvoyant Denton Brink

"Watch out for Russia - which way it will go, in the same way after it goes the rest of the World."

American clairvoyant Jane Dixon

Natural disasters of the early 21st century and all their global disaster caused by the least affected was Russia, and they are even less affected by Russian Siberia. The country has opened the possibility of rapid and powerful development. Hope of the world and its revival is coming from Russia.

Predictions Italy clairvoyant Mavis

Russia has a very interesting future, which absolutely nobody in the world expects from it. It would be the beginning Russian degeneration around the world. And no one is, how deep will this change in the whole vast world, is caused by Russia. It will revive even the deepest province, and will grow a lot of new towns on the periphery of the... Russia will reach a uniquely high level of development, which is not now, and even at that time there will be no one, even the most developed countries in the world... Then he pulled her the rest of the country... The former current Western way of terrestrial civilization very soon and it will replace the new Russian way.

Vanga predicted in 1996

The new man under the sign of the new doctrine will be in Russia, and he will rule Rus life ... The new doctrine will come from Russia - this is the most ancient and most true doctrine - spread throughout the world and the day will come when all the religions of the world disappear, and they will replace a new philosophical doctrine Fire Bible.

In Russia socialism back in a new form, it will be large collective and cooperative farms, and again restored the former Soviet Union, but the union has a new one. Russia will grow and grow, no one can stop Russia, there is no force that could break it. Russia will sweep away everything in its path, and not only continue, but will become the sole undivided "mistress of the world", and even America in 2030-ies recognize the superiority of Russia. The country will again become strong and powerful this empire, and will once again be called by the old name of ancient Rus.

Clairvoyant Edgar Cayce predicted about Russia

Did not have time yet to end the 20th century, both in the USSR comes the collapse of communism, but Russia, freed from communism not waiting for progress, and very difficult crisis. However, after 2010 the former Soviet Union will be reborn, but reborn in a new form. It will be headed by Russian rebuild civilization of Earth, and the center of this revival around the world will be Siberia. Through Russia to the rest of the world comes the hope of a lasting and just peace.

Prediction of Paracelsus

There is one nation that Herodotus called Hyperboreans - the progenitors of all peoples and all terrestrial civilizations - arias, which means "noble". The current name of the native land of this ancient people - Muscovy. Hyperborea in its turbulent history of the future learn a lot - and the terrible decline of the great variety of all kinds of disasters and powerful great flowering of the great variety of all kinds of goods, which will come at the beginning of the 21st century, ie, before 2040.

Prophecy 1930 St. Theophan of Poltava

Russia rise from the dead, and the whole world will be surprised... Togo orthodoxy that was in Russia before, will not be, but true faith not only revived, but also prevail.

Russia

 

"Want to whether the Russian war" - Mark Bernes
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