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Flag of Ukraine
Flag of Ukraine, adopted January 28, 1992

Ukraine (Украина) — a nation[ru] in south-eastern Europe, on the south by the Black and Azov Seas. The east and north borders with Ukraine Rostov, Voronezh, Belgorod, Kursk and Bryansk regions of Russia[ru]. In the north-west - with Belarus, in the west - with Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Moldova. Area of ​​603.6 thousand square kilometers The population of 45.9 million people (2009).

Capital - Kiev.

Other large cities: Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Lvov, Nikolaev, Zaporozhye, Krivoy Rog, Lugansk.

Calling code: +380.

Political system

Since March 2006, Ukraine - a parliamentary republic, where all power belongs to the prime minister, the leader of the party or coalition with the most votes in the elections to the Verkhovna Rada. President belong representative functions.

Political division

As part of Ukraine includes 24 regions, 2 cities of republican subordination (Kyiv and Sevastopol) and territorial autonomy - Autonomous Republic of Crimea. 448 towns, 897 townships. Modern administrative- territorial division of the saved from the Soviet period, however, there are projects of its processing. Ukraine is among the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) - an interstate association formed by three Soviet republics - Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The agreement on the establishment of the CIS, signed on 8 December 1991 in Minsk, representatives of those States have stated that the USSR in a deep crisis and the collapse ceases to exist, expressed willingness to develop cooperation in the political, economic, humanitarian and cultural spheres. Agreement on the establishment of the CIS was ratified December 12, 1991 the Supreme Council of the RSFSR.

Map of Ukraine

Anthem of Ukraine in the Ukrainian language

Small arms of Ukraine

Small arms of Ukraine is a blue shield with a golden trident

Ще не вмерла України і слава, і воля,
Ще нам, браття українці, усміхнеться доля.
Згинуть наші вороженьки, як роса на сонці.
Запануєм i ми, браття, у своїй сторонці.

Душу й тіло ми положим за нашу свободу,
І покажем, що ми, браття, козацького роду.

Станем, браття, в бій кривавий, від Сяну до Дону,
В ріднім краю панувати не дамо нікому,
Чорне море ще всміхнеться, дід-Дніпро зрадіє,
Ще у нашій Україні — доленька наспіє.

Душу, тіло ми положим за нашу свободу,
І покажем, що ми, браття, козацького роду.

А завзяття, праця щира свого ще докаже,
Ще ся волі в Україні піснь гучна розляже,
За Карпати відіб'ється, згомонить степами,
України слава стане поміж народами.

Душу й тіло ми положим за нашу свободу
І покажем, що ми, браття, козацького роду.

"Anthem of Ukraine", App. Oleksandr Ponomarev
Melody anthem of Ukraine -"Rock Version"
Melody anthem of Ukraine - minus one

Ukrainian national anthem in English

Ukraine is not yet dead, and glory, and will,
Yet we, brothers Ukrainians, fate smiles.
Our enemies will vanish, like dew in the sun.
Will dominate and we brothers on its sidelines.

Body and soul we set for our freedom,
And we show that we, brothers, Cossack family.

Let us, brothers, in bloody battle from Sanaa to Don
In his native land will not allow anyone to dominate.
Black Sea still smile, grandfather - Dnepr gladdened,
Yet in our Ukraine - sudbinushka arrive in time.

Body and soul we set for our freedom,
And we show that we, brothers, Cossack family.

A zeal sincere work - its still prove
More will in Ukraine loud song will spread,
Over the Carpathians will echo rustle steppes
Ukraine will rise glory among the nations.

Body and soul we set for our freedom
And we show that we, brothers, Cossack family.

Notes anthem of Ukraine


According to the 2001 Census, up 77.8% Ukrainians, Russian 17.3%, 0.6% of Belarusians, Moldovans 0.5%, 0.5% Tatars, Bulgarians, 0.4%, 0.3% Hungarians, Romanians 0, 3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8%. Urban population - 67.9%. The population density is 83 people. per km2. As for Russia, Ukraine is characterized by depopulation, the gap in life expectancy between men and women and low birth rate at an elevated mortality in men of working age. Significant labor emigration from the country.

In rural areas, the share of Ukrainians reaches 80-90 % in cities reduced to 50-60%. Win in Russian cities increases. Ukrainian state language. His mother said more than 60 % of the population. The status of the Russian language is a problem. Most believers - Orthodox Christians. At the same time in Ukraine there are various Orthodox churches: the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate Exarchate), Kiev Patriarchate (not recognized by other patriarchates), Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. In the West, the country spread Greek Catholic (Uniate) and Catholicism. Some have different rumors spread of Protestantism, especially Baptists. Between the various Orthodox Churches and Greek Catholics, there are conflicts over church property. Other religions - Islam (mainly in the Crimea) Judaism.


The surface of the territory of Ukraine is mostly flat, with lowlands (Woodland, Dnieper, The Black Sea) and individual slabovskholmlennymi elevations up to 300-500 meters (Podolsky, Dnieper, Donetsk ridge, etc.). Mountains in the west (the Carpathians), and in the south (Crimean). The highest peak in the country - Hoverla in Carpathians (2061 meter).

The main rivers - the Dnipro and the Southern Bug and the Danube - flow into the Black Sea. There are more than 7,000 lakes (in floodplains, as well as in the north- west, in the Woodlands - most waterlogged area). The largest reservoir - Kremenchug, Kakhovske, Dneprodzerzhinskoe, Kiev and Kanev.

The climate is temperate continental. Characterized by seasonal differences, moderately cold winters, summers are long, warm or hot, the average July temperature is 18-24 C, in January from -8 C to 2-4 C (on the southern coast of Crimea). The total annual rainfall for most of Ukraine is 600 mm in the Carpathians - up to 1600 mm in the south and southeast 400-300 mm. Southern coast of Crimea is characterized by a subtropical climate of the Mediterranean type.

2/3 of the country (forest and steppe) chernozems busy - the most fertile soils in the world. Chernozem zone corresponds to the steppe zone. Since the second half of the 18th century began intensive plowing of the steppes, and is currently the natural vegetation in this area is preserved only in a few reserves (Askaniya Nova). Other zones - steppe and forest. Forest zone and mixed deciduous forests with white (European) fir, pine, beech and oak. In the forest-steppe zone forests consist mainly of oak, often forest islands surrounded by pastures. Slopes of the Carpathians are covered with mixed and coniferous forests of oak, beech, spruce and fir. On the slopes of Crimean mountains - forests of beech, oak and pine. Southern coast of Crimea has significant parkland from different species of Mediterranean flora, here are common orchards and vineyards.

Because plowing steppes and predatory development of forests (especially in the Soviet period) fauna of Ukraine poor species diversity, there are few endemics. There are 101 species of mammals, 350 species of birds, 21 species of reptiles, 19 species of amphibians and 200 species of fish. Bears, hares, wild boars, foxes, moose, lynx, grouse, grouse, eagles, hawks and owls still inhabit the north-west - in the Carpathians and woodland. In the forest common deer, wild boars, wolves, rodents (hamster, ferret), partridges, magpies, orioles. For most typical steppe belt rodents, wild birds and insects. In Ukraine there are 15 nature reserves, the largest - and Polesskii Sea. Carpathian and Shatsky national natural parks. In Askania Nova is working on introdutsirovaniyu exotic species.

There are deposits of iron ore and manganese, mercury, coal, uranium, potash, phosphate, apatite.


Industrial-agrarian country with a developed industry. Space power. GDP per capita is $ 6,400 (in 2009). In the structure of the national income (2009,%): 31.2 Industry, agriculture 10.0, the rest - the service sector, whose share after independence is growing. Electricity production 194 billion kWh (1995) Electricity base - large TPP (including a number of nuclear power plants); HPP cascade on the river. Dnepr (major: Dnieper, Kremenchug, Kakhovskaya). Highly mining: mining of coal and lignite, oil, gas, iron and manganese ores, non-ferrous and rare metals, brimstone, potash, rock salt, etc.

Leading position in the industry take heavy industry: engineering and metalworking (manufacture of machinery and equipment for the mining and metallurgical industry, power engineering and electrical industry, machine tool and instrument, electronic industry, including the production of televisions and computers, transportation equipment); ferrous and non-ferrous (aluminum, titanium, magnesium, mercury, etc.), metallurgy, chemistry, coke chemistry and petrochemicals (mineral fertilizers, sulfuric acid, soda, plastics, chemical fiber, etc.).

Developed: flavoring, including sugar, vegetable oil and fat, meat and dairy, canning, wine, tobacco, light (textile, clothing, knitwear, leather and footwear, etc.) industry. Forestry, wood (including furniture), pulp and paper industry. Production of building materials.

In Ukraine, there are three economic regions: Donets-Dnieper, Central West and South. The first focused enterprise mining, metallurgical, chemical and heavy industry. Second - manufacturing, light and food industries. In the South (the Crimea and the New Russia) dominated shipbuilding, ports and recreation industry. The most attractive areas for tourism - Crimea and the Carpathians.

Soil and climatic conditions almost universally extremely favorable for agriculture. The western and central regions of Ukraine specialize in technical and food crops (sugar beets, hops, corn, potatoes), southern Ukraine are grain crops and horticulture, near major cities developed horticulture. Agriculture is mainly specialized in the production of grain and industrial crops and livestock production. Top livestock industry - cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry. However, with the collapse of the USSR, Ukraine, the former"breadbasket -Union"in recession agriculture. Inflicted great damage on the Chernobyl accident.

In 2004 Ukraine registered a record growth of GDP (about 12 %), but in 2005 the growth rate decreased, at least 4 times. In 2006 growth is estimated at 6%. The fall in GDP in 2009 was 14.1%.

The main seaports of Odessa, Illyichevsk, Kherson, Izmail, Mariupol, Kerch, sea ferry Illichivs'k - Varna (Bulgaria).

Currency - UAH, which is equal to 100 kopecks.


Ukrainian history is closely linked with the history of Russia, Belarus, Poland and Moldova. In the 6th century to the north of modern Ukraine in the Dnieper came Slavic tribes displaced Avar onslaught from the Danube. Tribe areas are based Kyiv, becoming the largest trading hub in the region, thanks to its location on the tracks"from the Vikings to the Greeks."In the year 882 Slovenian Prince Oleg of Novgorod conquered Kiev, which became the center of the ancient Russian state, united Slavic tribes in the Russian Plain and adjacent lands. During the reign of Vladimir Svyatoslavich (980-1015 gg.) And Yaroslav the Wise (1019-1054 gg.) Kievan Rus was one of the largest states in Europe, established trade and political ties with Norway, France, Germany and other European countries. Debilitating attacks were for the country of nomads - Pechenegs Polovtsian.

In 988-989 years Vladimir converted to Christianity and baptized Rus. Since then, the Russian princes stopped military campaigns against Byzantium. After the reign of Vladimir Monomakh at his heirs the throne of Kiev lost because of quarrels actual championship, retaining nominal. In 1169 Grand Duke Andrei Bogolyubskii moved the capital of Russia to Vladimir.

In 1240, Kiev was razed by the Mongols, led by Batu Khan and empty as the surrounding land. They became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Carpathian Galicia-Volyn principality continued to exist independently until the accession of Poland and Lithuania in the 14th century vast steppe region severely depopulated. Ukraine began isolation from other East Slavic peoples.

After Union Duchy of Lithuania and Poland, Rzeczpospolita unified position of the Orthodox population has deteriorated significantly. In 15-16 centuries the exodus of people from religious oppression south into the lower reaches of the Dnieper, led to the emergence of the Cossacks. There was Zaporizhzhya Sich, which largely operated as an independent state, by signing and breaking alliances with various forces - Muscovite Russia, Tatars, Turks, Poland. However, Ukraine has continued to evolve culture emerged Orthodox brotherhood going enlightenment movement, which played a huge role Kyiv-Mohyla Academy spiritual. In the 16th century part of the clergy was adopted by the Union of Brest, was rejected by a majority of the population.

National and religious oppression, supplemented by special taxes for the Orthodox, has repeatedly led to major uprisings and wars. Uprising led by Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky led to the decision Pereyaslavska Rada on military and political alliance with Russia in 1654. This prompted a protracted war between Russia and Poland, ending Russia's victory. Earth Cossacks were called Right-Bank Ukraine. Officially, the titles of the kings of the earth called the Little Rus or Little Russia. As soon as Russia overcame the difficulties caused by the Time of Troubles and strengthened the state apparatus, the autonomy of the Ukrainian Cossacks shrinks, leading to riots and rebellions.

In 1709, Hetman Ivan Mazepa sided with Sweden against Russia in the Great Northern War (1700-1721)., But the bulk of the Cossacks did not go after him and his supporters and the Swedes were defeated in the Battle of Poltava in 1709. In 1734, died last elected Hetman Danylo Apostol. Hetman and Zaporizhzhya Sich abolished - the first in 1764 and second in 1775 - after joining the Russian Crimea and New Russia after the Russian-Turkish wars.

A large part of last free Cossacks were distributed serfdom. During the partition of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795 Left-bank Ukraine was a part of the Russian Empire, Galicia and Bukovina - the Austrian Habsburg Empire.

After ousting the Turks and Tatars began development of steppe chernozems. In the first half of the 19th century began mining Donbass, the second - the rapid industrial development of Kharkiv and other cities of Ukraine. And began the revival of Kiev. In the late 19th century in Ukraine arose nationalist and socialist parties. In 1876, Alexander II Emsky decree expelled Ukrainian language of the schools was banned release of printed products in the Ukrainian language. These publications were in printing Austrian Ukraine.

After World War Irus and the October Revolution in the Ukraine started the movement to create their own state. November 20, 1917 in Kiev was proclaimed Ukrainian People's Republic (the Government of the Central Council, directory), December 12, 1917 in Kharkov - Ukrainian Soviet Republic, and November 1, 1918 in Lviv - West Ukrainian People's Republic. German troops in agreement with the Soviets (the Brest peace) occupied part of the territory, including Kiev. In 1918-1921, the south- east of Ukraine was ruled by anarchists led by Nestor Makhno. All of these forces that fought, we conclude temporary alliances. In 1920-1921, the Red Army occupied the whole territory of Eastern Ukraine and Galicia and Volyn failures after Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky in the Polish-Soviet war became part of Poland.

On December 30, 1922 Ukrainian SSR became a part of the USSR. In Soviet Ukraine were established schools and universities teaching the Ukrainian language. In Poland, there was a powerful Ukrainian nationalist movement was born here the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). After the liquidation of the NEP and the policy of industrialization and collectivization in 1932-1933 Soviet Ukraine experienced a famine ("Holodomor"in the number of victims included about 3 million people). However, in 1930 there were built industrial facilities Union value, retained their lead until now. The Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact of 1939 Galicia and Volyn were annexed to Soviet Ukraine. Northern Bukovina, which has appeared since 1917 in Romania, was included in the Ukraine in 1940, and the Transcarpathian region, formerly part of Czechoslovakia - in 1945.

June 22, 1941 Kiev was the first Soviet city was air strikes, it was the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Within two months, all Ukraine was under German occupation. On the one hand, there existed a powerful guerrilla movement, on the other - the OUN collaborated with the Germans. Part OUN created Ukrainian Insurgent Army and fight like the Red Army and the guerrillas, so that later the Germans.

The war has caused enormous damage to Ukraine. Cooperation with the Germans was banned Greek Catholic Church in 1946. In 1945, the Ukrainian SSR became a member of the UN. OUN and UPA continued guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule in Western Ukraine until 1953. After the war, Ukraine experienced a famine again in 1947. In Western Ukraine were mass political repression. In 1953, the coming to power of Nikita Khrushchev changed the position, however, continued to struggle with nationalism all the years of the Soviet regime. In 1954 he was transferred to Ukraine Crimea region.

Ukraine was one of the most developed republics of the USSR, with a relatively high standard of living. The Chernobyl accident in 1986, in addition to material damage and human losses inflicted deep damage confidence in the leadership of the Communist Party. In 1989, there was a powerful national-democratic movement"Movement", was ousted the first secretary of the Communist Party Vladimir Scherbitsky. In 1990, former Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk was appointed chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the updated, which included 25 % of the deputies of the national and democratic movements, elected in 1990. July 16, 1990 Ukraine declared its sovereignty. This meant for the nationalists independence, and the Communists - autonomy. November 21, 1990, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed an agreement on sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of each other.

After the events of August 1991 Ukraine declared its independence. Several days later, the Communist Party of Ukraine was banned and its property confiscated. National referendum on independence was held on December 1, about 90% of voters supported the Declaration of Independence. Most countries in the world have recognized Ukraine in the next few months. December 8, 1991 Ukraine with the Russian Federation and Belarus participated in the signing of the Belovezhskaya agreements establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). From Ukraine signed it Karvchuk elected president. However, the subsequent precipitous worsening economic situation led to the downfall of his authority.

The next elections in 1994 won the former Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma, skillfully play the card of the Russian language, relevant to the eastern regions (promises, however, were not satisfied). Started economic reforms. In 1998, the government led by Prime Minister Viktor Andreyevich Yushchenko failed to mitigate the effects of the Russian default of the country.

In November 1999, the Ukrainian president was re-elected Leonid Kuchma. Stumbling block between Russia and Ukraine became the transit of Russian gas to Europe through Ukrainian portion of the line. In April 2000, during the visit of Vladimir Putinrus to Kiev Kuchma was forced to admit that Ukrainian organization appropriated Russian gas. Guilty of this was declared the former Deputy Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko, who was arrested but released under pressure from the opposition to freedom, which allowed it to become one of the leaders of the opposition.

Tymoshenko and other opposition activists launched a campaign"Ukraine without Kuchma", accompanied by numerous rallies. As occasion was used Kill internet journalist Gongadze, in which the opposition began to accuse the president. In the context of political instability Kuchma April 26, 2001 dismissed the Prime Minister Yushchenko, who soon became the leader of the liberal- nationalist opposition. 2004 elections even more sharply outlined on the territorial division of the country - the basis of language. Kuchma's successor was nominated acting Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych.

"Orange Revolution", proclaimed supporters of Yushchenko and Tymoshenko, supported by the United States and Poland, led to the cancellation of the second round of voting, the results of which Yanukovych was elected president. Was held"third round"contrary to the laws in force, the results of which was declared by President Yushchenko. Priorities for Ukraine's steel entry into the EU and NATO. Prime Minister Tymoshenko was appointed. However, populist politics, attempt to revise the results of privatization and confrontation with Russia remains a major supplier of energy to the Ukraine led to a significant drop in economic growth. As a result of the government crisis in September 2005, Tymoshenko was removed from his post, the Prime Minister was approved Yuriy Yekhanurov, who announced the cancellation of de-privatization in Ukraine.

In March 2006, elections were held in the Verkhovna Rada, whose value is greatly increased due to the reform of state power. Won by a huge margin"Party of Regions"(34 % of the vote), led by Yanukovych, second place went to the Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (22.3%), the presidential party"Our Ukraine"got only about 14 % of the vote. Three months later the coalition was formed,"Party of Regions","Our Ukraine"and the Socialist Party, headed by Alexander Alexandrovich Claus signatories"National Unity", which have been identified priorities of foreign and domestic policy. Prime minister by the president became Viktor Yanukovych.

In April 2007, President Yushchenko issued a decree dissolving the Verkhovna Rada and call new parliamentary elections May 27, 2007. He justified his decision"unconstitutional"transfer of a significant number of deputies of the faction in the faction, which dramatically changed the picture in the coalition forces, signatories"Universal". Rada refused to disband, started the confrontation between the presidential administration and the"Party of Regions", headed by Viktor Yanukovych. After lengthy negotiations, the parties agreed to hold early elections.

In September 2007, elections were held. As a result, the Verkhovna Rada passed the five parties: the Party of Regions (34.1% of the vote), the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (30.8%),"Our Ukraine - People samoborona"(14.3%), Communist Party of Ukraine (5.4%), Lytvyn Bloc (about 4%).

National holiday: Independence Day - August 24.

National Day, established in 1992 by resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine - Independence Day (Day of Nezalezhnosti Ukraine) - is celebrated every year in the country on August 24 in honor of the adoption of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR "Act of Independence of Ukraine." This event is considered to be the date of formation of the Ukrainian state in its present form. According to Art. 73 of the Labor Code, it is a weekend.

History of Ukraine decided to count since the establishment of the Kievan state in the IX century. After the decline of public education and to accompany him on the collapse of the small principality in the XVII century is formed Cossack Hetman state, which existed until the end of the XVIII century, and then, until the XX century, an independent Ukrainian state did not exist.
After the October Revolution of 1917 in Ukraine was designated the rise of the national movement, took shape in the "Third Estate" of the Central Council November 20, 1917 and announced the Ukrainian People's Republic - the UPR. In Universale it was announced on freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, strikes, abolishing the death penalty.

After the failure of the Ukrainian government an ultimatum to accept the Bolshevik Council of People's Commissars, which was required to allow them to send troops to Ukraine, as well as not to miss the Don Cossacks and white officers, began Ukrainian-Bolshevik war. The military successes of the Bolsheviks forced the UNR leadership to call for help to Germany.

Since the middle of February 1918 launched an offensive of German and Ukrainian troops on the territory occupied by the Bolsheviks, which resulted in its de facto occupation by German troops already. The ensuing civil war and a series of interventions were completed in March 1919 in Kiev, at the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets of the adoption of the Constitution of "independent Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR)."

Originally, festivities were held on 16 July. On this day in 1990 the Supreme Council of the USSR ratified the declaration number 55-XII On the State Sovereignty of Ukraine" and the decree № 56-XII On the Day of independence."

August 19, 1991 in the Soviet Union was a coup. He served as the basis for the publication of August 24 the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Act "On the declaration of independence of Ukraine." Along with it came a decree № 1427-XII On declaration of independence" and appointed the popular vote to confirm the Act of citizens. By the walls of the only legislative body in Ukraine - Verkhovna Rada of ordinary citizens brought the blue-yellow flag, which was hoisted above the dome of the building.

August 24, 1991 the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR proclaimed Ukraine an independent, democratic state, and issued "Declaration of Independence of Ukraine" on the confirmation of all-Ukrainian referendum December 1, 1991. On the same day he was elected president - Leonid Kravchuk. February 20, 1992 the Verkhovna Rada passed the law № 2143-XII On the Day of Independence of Ukraine" and paying attention to the authority of the Act, pointed to celebrate it annually on August 24th.

The Independence Day is traditionally held a lot of celebrations and mass festivities.

More about Ukraine (some more data - outdated at the moment and are of historical information):


USSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) was established December 25, 1917. With the creation of the USSR 30 December 1922 entered into its composition as a Soviet republic. Located on the south- west of the European part of the USSR. In the West and South- west of the country, it borders with the countries of the Soviet Union: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania. It has borders with the Byelorussian SSR, in the East and Northeast. with the RSFSR, on the south- west of the Moldavian SSR. In the South, bordering the Black and Azov Seas.

Ukraine - the third largest after the RSFSR and the Kazakh SSR and the second in population after the RSFSR Union republic. Area of ​​603,700 km2. Population 49.1 million. (as of 1 January 1976).

The capital of Ukraine - Kiev.

USSR divided (1976) on 25 regions and 477 districts, 394 cities and has 892 urban-type settlements (see Table. 1). Includes three major economic regions: Donets-Dnieper, South-West, South.

Territory, population and administrative- territorial division of areas (as of 1 January 1976)

Table 1

RegionTerritory, thousands km2Population, thousand personsDistrictsCitiesSettlements of urban type

State system of Ukraine

USSR - socialist state of workers and peasants, a Union Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union. The current constitution was adopted by the USSR Extraordinary 14th Ukrainian Congress of Soviets on January 30, 1937. The supreme body of state power - the unicameral Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR, elected for 4 years at a rate of 1 deputy from 100 thousand inhabitants. Between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, the highest organ of state power - the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

Supreme Soviet forms the government of the republic - the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR adopts laws, etc. Local authorities in the regions, districts, cities, towns and villages are the respective Soviets, popularly elected for 2 years. In the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine represented by 32 deputies.

Ukraine's highest court - the Supreme Court of the Republic, elected by the Supreme Council for a term of 5 years, shall consist of the two judicial divisions (civil and criminal) and Plenum. In addition, there is the Presidium of the Supreme Court. USSR Prosecutor appointed by the Prosecutor General of the USSR period of 5 years.

Nature of Ukraine

Diversity of nature Ukrainian republic is determined by its position in the South West of the USSR in the subzone of mixed forests, forest-steppe and steppe zones, as well as within the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. From the West to the East area of ​​the country stretches from the Carpathians to the Central Russian Upland more than 1,300 km, and from north to south - from the Pripyat River to the shores of the Black and Azov seas almost 900 kilometers.

Black Sea coast, mostly low-lying and dismembered bays (Tendrovsky, Dzharylgach, Karkinitsky, Kalamitsky) and estuaries (Dniester, Hadzibeevsky, Kuyal'nitskogo, Tiligulskiy, Bug, Dnieper), in the south of the Crimean peninsula - the steep and mountainous. The northern shores of the Azov Sea are characterized by a flat and sand spits (Obytichna, Berdyansk, etc.) in the West Sea of Azov extends Arabatsky Arrow separating the bay from the sea salty Siwash.


Most of the territory of Ukraine belongs to the southwestern margin of the East European Plain and has a flat and hilly terrain, rising only in the South Crimean mountains in the West - Ukrainian Carpathians. East European Plain within the country consists of upland and lowland areas, coinciding respectively with uplifts and subsidences of the crystalline basement of the platform. Among the first and most significant Volyn Upland, Upland Podolsky, stretching from the Northwest to the Southeast from the upper reaches of the river Bug and upper left tributaries of the Dniester River to the valley of the Southern Bug (height up to 471 meters - Mount Kamuli).

East, between the Southern Bug and Dnieper, is the Dnieper Upland (elevations to 323 m), and on the left bank of the Dnieper, in the southeastern part of the country, a narrow strip stretches Azov Upland (elevations to 324 m - Mount Belmak Grave). From the Northeast to adjoins Donetsk ridge (altitude up to 367 m - Mount Tomb-Mechetnaya) in whose territory the frequent piles, quarries, and other forms of relief, formed as a result of human activities. In the Northeast of the Ukraine go spurs of the Central Russian Upland. For typical hills and deep valleys thick subdivision surfaces and gullies and ravines.

Ukraine occupies the northern part of South Polessian lowlands with a height of 150 - 200 meters, and its flat surface is formed by ancient fluvioglacial and alluvial deposits, sometimes complicated hilly moraine, aeolian landforms and karst.

In the Southeast Polessye gradually transformed into the Dnieper lowland extending along the left bank of the Dnieper in its middle reaches, in the western part of the lowland floodplain and well developed floodplain terraces of the Dnieper, the eastern part is a plain dissected by ravines, gullies and valleys asymmetric left tributaries of the Dnieper.

The southern part of the country occupied by the Black Sea lowland, gently sloping plains in the south with wide valleys and flat watersheds with lots of decks, steppe saucers, formed as a result of subsidence phenomena in loess rocks.

Lowlands of Northern Crimea is a continuation of the Black Sea Lowland (except the Kerch Peninsula, characterized by hilly terrain and the presence of mud volcanoes), in the South are replaced by the Crimean mountains (highest - South, or Crimean Main, with the top ridge of the Roman-Kosh - 1545 m). The topography is characterized by the Crimean mountains leveled surfaces (plateau) with extensive development of karst landforms.

In western Ukraine, located in the highest mountains of the country - Ukrainian Carpathians, representing a neck (60 - 100 km) and a lower part of the Eastern Carpathians and consisting of a series of parallel ridges extending from the Northwest to the Southeast on the 270 km (highest point - Hoverla, 2061 m). In the south-western foothills of the Ukrainian Carpathians extends alluvial Transcarpathian lowland (altitude 100 - 120 m).

Geological structure and mineral resources of Ukraine

The country occupies the southwestern part of the East European Platform and its flanking folded structures of the Carpathians and the Crimea. Within the platform portion allocated:

The largest structural element - Ukrainian crystalline massif, which occupies the central part of the country, consists of hard and dislocated Archean rocks of Proterozoic age 3500 - 1200 million years. In the side of the Carpathians, these rocks are immersed hollow, passing in the Volyn-Podolsk plate folded Riphean, Vendian and Paleozoic rocks.

Donetsk aulacogene complex in the central part of thick (up to 15 km) Carboniferous coal-bearing formations and Permian salt-bearing strata, reaching the surface. In the northwestern part of the basin exposed Triassic and Jurassic deposits, and on its edges - Cretaceous and Paleogene-Neogene rocks, they are pleated, plunging in the Northwest in the Dnieper-Donets basin filled with saline and dislocated strata carboniferous formations of Paleozoic and weakly impaired stratum Meso-Cenozoic rocks. In the South Ukrainian Black Sea Depression limited array filled with hollow-seated Cretaceous and Paleogene-Neogene deposits.

Mountain structures south of Ukraine - Crimean Mountains and part of the Eastern Carpathians - are part of the Alpine geosynclinal (folded) region. Crimean mountains - a large block-anticlinal uplifts folded Triassic-Jurassic flysch rocks, Cretaceous and Tertiary sand-clay and carbonate rocks. Ukrainian Carpathians include Carpathian foredeep, the folded region of the Carpathians (flysch and anticlinorial inner zone) and Transcarpathian inner deflection. In the folded area exposed Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks overlain by Mesozoic sediments and flysch of Cretaceous and Paleogene ages. Neogene formation characteristic of the Carpathian and Transcarpathian basins.

Throughout the country there are large ore and coal basins: Krivoy Rog iron ore basin, Kerch iron pool, pool Nikopol manganese ore, Donets Basin and the Lvov-Volyn coal basin, and numerous deposits of brown coal. Deposits of combustible gas and oil are mainly associated with Paleozoic sediments of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (Sumy, Poltava, Kharkiv and Chernihiv region) and Paleogene-Neogene deposits Carpathian Basin (Borislav, Dashava), the largest deposits - West Krestischenskoe and Shebelinsky (Kharkiv region).

In the Donets Basin is Mykytivske mercury deposit. In Ukraine, there are:



Ukraine is rich in mineral springs of healing waters. Some springs are world famous (Truskavec - bicarbonate-calcium-magnesium water). Widely known:

Common mud (in lakes and estuaries) on the coast of the Black and Azov Seas.

Moderate climate in Ukraine, mainly continental, much warmer and softer than in the adjacent eastern regions of the RSFSR. Along with the strengthening of continental climate from west to east is observed latitudinal zoning: from North to South is a growing difference between summer and winter temperatures, reduced thickness and duration of snow cover, rainfall and relative humidity. Average January temperatures range from - 7 to - 8C in the Northeast to 2 - 4C in the southern coast of Crimea, July 18 - 19C in the north-west to 23 - 24C in the south-east. The frost-free period ranges from 150 - 160 days in the north to 200 - 210 days in the south and up to 270 days on the southern coast of Crimea.

Winds of change in seasons: winter in the northern part of the republic dominated by westerly winds that bring moisture to the south - the north-eastern and eastern dry and cold. summer most frequent north-westerly winds, but not uncommon in the southern half as the eastern and south-easterly winds sometimes winds. Annual rainfall varies from 600 - 700 mm in the north-west to 300 mm in the south-east falls in mountains of Crimea in 1000 - 1200 mm, on the Ukrainian Carpathians to 1200 - 1600 mm, maximum precipitation occurs in a large part of the country mainly in the spring and the summer months. In the South, in the wall zone, inadequate hydration and in some years there are droughts.

Inland waters

The total length of the river network of about 170,000 kilometers. The greatest value of the river network density reaches in the Ukrainian Carpathians, on the Donets Ridge and the West Polessye. 22523 of rivers longer than 4 117 km of rivers have a length of 100 kilometers or more. Most rivers belong to the basins of the Black and Azov seas and only about 4% of the territory has stock in the Baltic Sea.

The most important waterway - Dnepr tributaries: Pripyat, Desna, Grouse, Ros Court Psyol Vorskla etc. Dnieper crosses the whole territory of Ukraine from north to south and divides it into two parts - the Right Bank and the Left Bank, and its basin covers the northern and central part (about 50% of the territory).

South-western slopes of the Central Russian Upland and northern Donets Ridge belong to the basin of the right tributary of the Don - the Seversky Donets River, the southern slopes of the ridge with small rivers flow into the Sea of ​​Azov. River of the West and Southwest of the Republic belong to the basin of the Southern Bug and Dniester. Transcarpathia irrigated headwaters of the Tisza River (left tributary of the Danube). On the Chernivtsi region originates Prut river. In the extreme south-west, on the border with Romania, the Danube flows (mouth part).

River southern steppes of Ukraine in the summer of partially dry (except the main), and the lower left bank of the Dnieper River (west of the Breast) without a permanent drain. The diet of lowland rivers is dominated by melt-water (50 - 80%), and in mountain - mostly rainwater. Lowland rivers have a pronounced spring tide, low summer low water, light autumn floods and low winter low flow.

Average annual runoff is from 1 to 4 l/s 1 km2. In winter, most of the rivers covered with ice, the duration of the freeze-up an average of 2 to 3.5 months (during prolonged winter thaws river are sometimes exempt from ice). Water resources, taking into account the USSR water coming from the territories of the BSSR and the RSFSR, are about 95 billion m3, including groundwater 3.2 billion m3. Major rivers are used for navigation, in many rivers (Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug, etc.) are GES.

Water for industrial enterprises and cities established channels: Seversky Donets - Donbas Dnepr - Krivoy Rog, construction (1976) Dnepr - Donbas. Operates the North Crimean irrigation canal (Phase 1).

Over 7000 lakes (area of 0.1 km2 and up, for a total area of over 2 million square kilometers), the most common are lakes in the floodplains of the Danube (Ialpug, Katlabuh), the Dnieper, the Desna, Pripyat. On the Black and Azov Seas are lakes Sasyk Shagany alibi estuaries and lakes - Kuyal'nitskogo, Hadzibeevsky. In Volyn Polissya many karst lakes (Svityazskoe, Pulemetske etc.). In the Ukrainian Carpathians most significant Synevyr lake. There are more than 23 thousand artificial ponds and reservoirs (including Kremenchug area 2250 km2, Kakhovske - 2155 km2, Kiev - 922 km2, Dneprodzerzhinskoe - 567 km2, etc.).


Lowlands characterized zoning soil. The northern part is dominated by various types of sod-podzolic soils, which occupy about 70% of the total Ukrainian Polessye; also common meadow-marsh and peat soils. In the forest-steppe region is dominated by various types of gray forest soils, ashed and typical black soil (humus to 4 - 6%), covering more than half of its area. In the steppe zone - ordinary and southern chernozems, and along the coast is dominated by dark brown soil (humus content to 3.5 - 5%), requiring irrigation (especially in the South Zone).

In the Ukrainian Carpathians topsoil varies from sod-podzolic soils in Precarpathians to podzolized forest belt of brown earth in beech forests and mountain-meadow and mountain peaty poloniny. In the mountainous Crimea distributed mainly brown forest and mountain-meadow soils, and on the southern coast of Crimea - reddish brown and brown.


In the republic there are about 16,000 species of plants. Lowlands characterized by zonation of vegetation. The northern part is located within the spread of mixed forests, forests occupy about area here. Common oak-pine, hornbeam-oak-pine and oak-hornbeam forests and forests on the sands. In the undergrowth grow hazel, blueberries, cranberries, etc. A large area is under Polessye lowland meadows and grassy marshes and in the north-west there are riding sphagnum bogs.

In the forest-steppe zone forests occupy about 11% of the territory, mainly on dissected watersheds. Dominated by deciduous forests of oak, beech, hornbeam, linden, ash, maple on sandy terraces of river valleys there are pine forests. Total area of ​​forest USSR - 9990 thousand hectares including forested - 8457 hectares, and the total timber reserves are 968.4 million cubic meters (1973). Steppe vegetation occupies equal parts of the watersheds and is found only in certain areas, most of the territory occupied by plowed and cultivated vegetation. Herb-feather grass and sagebrush-fescue steppes preserved only in reserves.

On the slopes of Crimean mountains dominated forests of oak, beech and pine trees on jajlah - mountain-steppe vegetation on the southern coast of Crimea - oak-juniper forests with some deciduous and evergreen Mediterranean type (arbutus, wild pistachio, butcher, etc.). Ukrainian Carpathians slopes to a height of 500 - 600 m are covered with deciduous forests of oak, hornbeam, maple and linden trees above - forests of beech with an admixture of spruce and fir. At the most elevated, flat areas of the Carpathians - shrubs, spruce and pine forests, passing into alpine meadows (meadows).

Animal world

In the forests there are Polessye: bears, elk, deer, wild boar, wolf, fox, lynx, badger, squirrel, 3 species of dormice and other such birds are typical: grouse, grouse, grouse, chickadees, woodpecker, oriole. In the forest-steppe zone common: deer, wild boar, wolf, marten, weasel, squirrel, hamster, hedgehog, from birds - Grey partridge, magpie, oriole.

Steppe zone is characterized by: gophers (mottled, small, European), jerboa, hamster, mouse, and various kinds of larks, quail and other ubiquitous hare. In the Carpathians, there are bears, wild boar, lynx, wild cat. In the forests of the Crimean Mountains and the Carpathians inhabited European deer, roe deer. For villages typical white stork.

The rivers and lakes are found: catfish, perch, pike, ide, crucian carp and other fish of the Black Sea Fishing - mackerel, mullet, etc.; Azov Sea - herring, anchovy, flounder.


For the purpose of protection, rational use, restoration and enhancement of the natural resources, flora and fauna in the Ukraine, a network of state reserves. In 1975, they had 9 pieces (total area of ​​126 700 hectares). In the steppe zone of the nature reserves: Askaniya Nova (Kherson region), Black Sea (Kherson, Nikolaev, Odessa region), Ukrainian steppe reserve (Donetsk, Zaporozhye, Sumy region), Luhansk (Voroshilovgradskaya region) in the forest-steppe zone - Kanev (Cherkasy region), in the zone of mixed forests - Polesskii (Zhytomyr region) in the Ukrainian Carpathians - Carpathian, in Crimea - Yalta mountain-forest and the Cape Marian. Organized the Azov-Sivashskoe (Kherson region) and the Crimean hunting reserve and also the Dnieper-Teterivska Zalesskoye and protected forest hunting grounds.

Natural zoning

Within the subzone of mixed forests (20% of the country) is Ukrainian Polessye southern boundary of his passes through the settlements: Rava-Russian, Lviv, Kremenets Shepetovka Zhitomir, Kiev, Nizhin, Baturin, Krolevec, Deaf. In this area is dominated by marshy landscapes, characterized by moderately warm, humid climate, extensive development of sandy plains, covered with oak and pine woods (near the site) in conjunction with meadows and marshes. Within Ukrainian Polessye isolated West Polesie (Volyn, Zhitomir and Kiev) and Eastern Polessye (Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky).

The middle part of Ukraine, which lies within the forest-steppe zone (about 35% of the territory) is a dissected plain, mainly chernozem and gray forest soils. Arrays deciduous forests interspersed with large plowed plots. The peculiarities of the natural conditions of forest-steppe zone is divided into the Volyn-Podolsk, Prydniprovska and Left - steppe.

South of the line-Ananev Dobrovelichkivka - Znamianka - Kremenchug - Krasnohrad - Snakes - Volchanok located steppe zone (40% of the country), extending to the Black Sea and Azov Sea and the foothills of the Crimea. Flat surface with predominantly black soil dissected valleys, ravines and gullies.

Wide development of irrigated agriculture received here. Isolated northern steppe (on the spur of Podolsk, Dnieper and Azov Upland, the Donets Ridge and the southern part of the Dnieper lowland) and south (Black Sea).

Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by high-altitude zone landscapes. The main landscapes are foothill zone of mixed forests and meadows above - mountain - forest with dominance of beech, oak, hornbeam, spruce and subalpine fir forests and with shrub and mountain meadows (polonynas).

Mountain Crimea

On the slopes - forest landscapes (mostly of oak, beech and Crimean pine), mountain meadows (mountain pasture) and subtropical Mediterranean-type landscapes on the southern coast of Crimea. L. M. Marinich, GI Kaliayev (geological structure and minerals)

The population of Ukraine

The main population of the republic - Ukrainians (35 283.9 thous., Here and below, the 1970 census data). Live (thous.)

In 1975 the total population of Ukraine has increased in comparison with 1913 by 39.4%, as compared with 1940, despite the huge losses in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945 - by 18.7% (see Table. 2).


Table 2

YearAll population, thousand peopleIncludingIn% of total population

1Score for the year.

2Score on January 1.

3According to the census on 15 January.

During the period 1950 - 1975's total population growth was nearly 13.9 million people. Population growth is mainly due to natural increase, and also due to migration. Largest natural population growth (5.1 persons. 1 thousand inhabitants in 1975) Ukraine conceded many union republics (the USSR average - 8.8 pers.).

Republic is one of the densely populated Soviet republics. Population density (81.3 persons. 1 km 2, January 1, 1976) took third place (after the Moldavian SSR and Armenian SSR) in the country. The most densely populated were highly developed industrial areas: Donetsk (194 people per 1 km 2), Dnipropetrovsk (111.9 pers.) Voroshilovgradskaya (105.6 pers.), Kiev (134.5 pers.), Lviv (115.5 pers.). Densely populated and forest-steppe regions of Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil and Chernivtsi regions, which are particularly high density of the rural population. The lowest population density was observed in Polessie (38 - 50 people. 1 km 2) in the area of Ukrainian Carpathians, in Kherson, Nikolayev, Chernigov and Volyn regions.

The number of workers and employees in the national economy of the republic in 1975 was 18.4 million people, including thousands of industry 6602, 1854 thousand in construction, agriculture and forestry 1401 thousand, transport and communications in 1976 ths. The proportion of women in the total number of workers and employees was 52% (including 47% in industry, 83% of health care, education 73%, trade, material supply, billets, catering and others 77%).

Main socio-economic transformation in the country accompanied by changes in the ratio between urban and rural populations. The urban population increased from 12.8 million. in 1950 to 29.4 million. in 1976.

In those years was a high proportion of the urban population in industrial areas:

36 cities have a population of 100 to 500 thousand people., Including the city (thous.)

During the years of socialist construction in Ukraine grew new cities, including Severodonetsk, New Kakhovka, Novovolinsk, Vatutine New Rozdil. (MM Palamarchuk)

Books about Ukraine

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