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Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin — biography

Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin

Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin (this article is in Russian Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин) (1934-1968) — Russia[ru] cosmonaut of the USSR (1961), Colonel, Hero of the Soviet Union[ru] (1961). Made the world's first flight into space on the spaceship "Vostok" lasting 1 hour 48 minutes.

Yuri Gagarin was born March 9, 1934 in Gzhatsk (now Gagarin) Gzhatsk (now Gagarin) District, Smolensk region. His mother, Anna Timofeevna and father, Alexei Ivanovich, were ordinary laborers from rural villages Klushino Gzhatsk district.

After the German occupation, the Gagarin family moved in 1945 from Klushino in Gzhatsk. After finishing school, Jura 30 September 1949 entered into a trade school Lubertsy 10, from which he graduated in June 1951 in the specialty molder-caster. 1951 - School of young workers in Lyubertsy (Moscow region).

In August Gagarin enrolled at the Saratov Industrial Technical School. 25 October 1954 started in Saratov flying club. In 1955, he graduated from the Saratov Industrial Technical School, and October 10 of the same year - Saratov Flying Club.

Since 1955, Gagarin - in the Soviet Army. From 1957 to enroll in the cosmonaut served as a fighter pilot in fighter aviation regiment of the Northern Fleet. Had qualified "military pilot 1st class."

October 27th 1957 Yuri Gagarin married Valentina Ivanovna Goriacheva, who became his faithful companion for many years. In their family grew two daughters - Lena (born 10 April 1959) and Galia (born 7 March 1961).

December 26 he was summoned to place a new destination: Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Northern Fleet. Learning about the recruitment of candidates for the test flight of a new technology, YA Gagarin 9 December 1959 wrote a report with a request to enroll him in a group, and after the call on December 18 leaving for Moscow, the Central Research Aviation Hospital for examination health.

3 March 1960 Lieutenant General Kamanin presented Commander Air Chief Marshal of Aviation Vershinin selected group of pilots - cosmonaut candidates.

March 11 Yu Gagarin with his family went to a new place of work, and from March 25 began regular classes in the cosmonaut training program.

12 April 1961 for the first time in human history Yuri Gagarin flew into space on the spaceship "Vostok". Gagarin orbited the earth in one hour 48 minutes and returned safely to the Earth[ru]. This flight has opened up a new era of humanity - the era of space exploration. Involved in teaching and training the crews of astronauts. For this feat, he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, and the day of Gagarin's flight into space was declared a holiday - the Day of Cosmonautics, since April 12, 1962.

On 23 May 1961 - commander of the cosmonaut. On December 20, 1963 - Deputy Head of the Cosmonaut Training Center. Understudy pilot spacecraft "Soyuz" (Vladimir Komarov) at the start April 23, 1967.

In July 1961, Yuri Gagarin received an invitation to dinner from the Queen of Great Britain[ru]. At dinner, the cosmonaut, looking at the glittering fans of spoons, forks, tongs and knives arranged in strict order around his plate and dishes, was confused, but because he was a military and straightforward man, he did not blush and squirm in his chair, but directly addressed Elizabeth: "Your Majesty! I am a simple man, I grew up in a remote Russian village, where there is only one tool for any food — a spoon. So I don't know how to use all these things." The Queen replied: "You are unnecessarily confused. I grew up in Buckingham Palace, but I still don't understand the purpose of these devices." And she took a simple spoon and together with cosmonaut Gagarin began to eat lobster pate.

Since December 20, 1963, Gagarin has been the Deputy head of the cosmonaut training Center. Stand-in pilot of the Soyuz spacecraft (Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov) at the launch on April 23, 1967.

In 1966, Yuri Alekseyevich was elected an Honorary member of the International Academy of Astronautics, and in 1964 he was appointed commander of the Soviet cosmonauts.

17 February 1968 Yuri defended in the name of Professor Zhukovsky VVIA thesis project. State Examinations Commission awarded Colonel Y. Gagarin Pilot-qualified engineer-cosmonaut. Until the last days Gagarin acting deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

In honor of his native Gagarin Gzhatsk was perimenovan in Gagarin. His name will forever remain in the cosmos, he reinvented for mankind, one of the largest craters (diameter 250 km) on the back side of the moon is named after Gagarin. And that is symbolic - it is located between the crater Tsiolkovsky and the Sea of Dreams.

In 1968, the IAF established Gagarin Medal, which is awarded to individuals who have made a special contribution to aviation and space exploration.

Gagarin became a household name for the pioneers in any field of activity on a par with the name of explorer Christopher Columbus[ru]. Motto Gagarin became a phrase recorded them in his diary shortly before his death, March 12: "I have no greater desire than the desire to fly. pilot must fly. always fly."

The launch of the world's first manned space ship was led by Chief designer Sergey Korolev. "If only he flew off and returned alive!" — said Korolev after the launch of the launch vehicle. This epoch-making flight lasted 108 minutes.

The significance of this flight is difficult to overestimate — it opened the era of manned space flights and the exploration of outer space by mankind.

Meeting of cosmonaut candidates with Korolev

Nine months before the legendary flight, a select six pilots met with academician Korolev. He showed the first spacecraft, said that one cosmonaut would fly, and only to a three-hundred-kilometer orbit with the first space speed. They were all clustered around a silvery-white sphere about two and a half meters in diameter. Korolev, looking searchingly at the faces, asked: "Anyone interested in getting to know the cabin of the ship? The pilots looked at each other, the invitation was too unusual.

"May I?" Yuri Gagarin took a step forward. He even took off his shoes and in his socks (all the people here were in white coats) climbed the ladder to the hatch, grabbed the bracket and sat in the pilot's seat.
Korolev nudged his second-in-command.

— This one will probably go first."

And Baikonur has already stopped waiting for the cherished moment. On April 10, in a modest wooden gazebo, which was dubbed the "pavilion" for the sake of importance, it was announced: on April 12, Gagarin will fly into space. His understudy is Herman Titov. At five in the morning, the rocket was taken to the launch site. In the Gulf of Guinea, telemetry control vessels bobbed busily on the waves. On the eve of the Queens are fairly warned:

— It's going to be hard going up and down. In flight, there is a considerable risk, which the dogs could not tell us about. After the announcement of a minute's readiness before the start, Korolyov's voice still faltered. It was the first time that earth had let her son go to the stars, and he had suddenly said a simple, earthly word that was destined to become famous: "Let's go!" Fifteen minutes after launch, the Vostok's radio signals began to circle the Aleutian Islands. From the American[ru] radar station to the Pentagon went the encryption for President Kennedy: Russian in space. The attendant immediately handed it over to The white house bedroom, for the President...

...He died like a real pilot: he went forever to his own sky and remained in each of us as a holiday, having withstood all the most severe tests with dignity. The Americans left a medal with a profile of Gagarin on the moon. Appreciated!

Yuri Gagarin died on March 27, 1968, under unclear circumstances near the village of Novoselovo, Kirzhachsky district, Vladimir region,during one of the training flights on the UTI MiG-15. He was buried near the Kremlin wall on Red Square. In connection with the death of Gagarin in the Soviet Union was declared a national, not a head of state[ru].

Later, according to declassified documents, according to the conclusions of the state Commission, the most likely cause of the crash, according to the Archive of the President of the Russian Federation, was called a sharp maneuver to evade the balloon-probe or, less likely, to prevent entry into the upper edge of the cloud. In the conditions of a complicated meteorological situation, this led to the aircraft entering a non-critical flight mode and stalling.

Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин в скафандре (Yury Gagarin in a spacesuit)

Let's remember Gagarin today,
How boldly he got into the rocket,
Said "let's Go!" with a smile
And the first to fly into space,
And now all the cosmonauts
We sincerely congratulate you,
On the day of cosmonautics we wish
Achievements, great feats,
Let them continue to conquer space,
Let them find life[ru] on Mars[horo],
But don't let them forget,
What on Earth are their families waiting for!

Of TASS

April 12, 1961 in the Soviet Union launched into orbit around the Earth the world's first satellite-spaceship "Vostok" with a man on board.

Pilot-astronaut spacecraft-satellite "Vostok" is a citizen of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics pilot Major Yuri Gagarin.

Start space multistage rocket was successful and after dialing the first cosmic velocity and separation from the last stage rocket ship satellite launched free flight in orbit around the Earth.

According to preliminary data, the orbital period of the ship-satellite around the Earth is 89.1 minutes, minimum distance from the Earth (perigee) is equal to 175 kilometers, and the maximum distance (apogee) is 302 km, inclination of the orbital plane to the equator 65 degrees 4 minutes.Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин в форме с наградами (Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin in the form with awards)

Weight-satellite spacecraft with pilot-cosmonaut of 4725 pounds, excluding the weight of the final stage of the launch vehicle.

With fellow cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin installed and maintained two-way radio. Frequency airborne shortwave transmitters comprise 9,019 megahertz and 20.006 megahertz, and in the range of VHF 143.625 megahertz. With the help of radio telemetry and television systems made monitoring of astronaut in flight.

Period of breeding, the ship-satellite "Vostok" in orbit, Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut comrade suffered satisfactorily and now feels good. Systems that provide the necessary living conditions in the cabin-satellite are functioning normally...

John F. Kennedy’s reaction to Gagarin’s flight: “Soviet education won. Guys, we need to learn physics, otherwise we will have to learn Russian.

Yet:

On April 12, 1961, at 9:17 Moscow time on the Vostok spaceship at 1055 hours, the senior lieutenant landed near the village of Smelovka in the Saratov region as a major.

Before the flight into space, Russia cosmonauts always watch the film "The White Sun[hor] of the Desert". This custom appeared after the film was released in 1969.

Yuri Gagarin established another custom: on the way to the cosmodrome he wanted to go to the toilet, the bus was stopped, and Gagarin peeed through the hole in the suit in the desert. And now all the cosmonauts, without removing equipment, meet the need on the way to the cosmodrome.

The crew of Soyuz-TM, which started on October 31 from Baikonur, decided not to break the tradition. Together with the Russians Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev, "customs followed" and the American William Shepard, reports Reuters. "Why would we violate traditions? Perhaps in the future there will be new customs, but for now we will observe the old customs," Yuri Gidzenko said.

Yuri Gagarin, officially considered the first cosmonaut of the Earth, was not the first. Prior to his flight, when trying to conquer space, three Soviet pilots were killed, an ex-senior engineer-experimenter OKB-456 Mikhail Rudenko told Interfax.

According to Rudenko, in 1957, 1958 and in 1959 from spaceport "Kapustin Yar" in the Astrakhan region were launched spacecraft piloted pilots Ledovsky, Shaborin and Mitkov. All these pilots were killed, and their names were never officially mentioned, Rudenko asserts.

According to Rudenko, these pilots participated in the so-called suborbital flights - that is, they should not have made a whole revolution around the planet, which Gagarin subsequently performed, and to fly along the parabola. And Ledovskikh, Shaborin and Mitkov were ordinary test pilots and did not undergo any special training.

"Apparently, after a series of tragic launches, the management of the manned space flight project decided to radically change the program and take a more serious approach to training pilots - to create a cosmonaut detachment," concluded Rudenko.

The flight into space of Yuri Gagarin, as it turns out, was accompanied by incidents that for a long time were classified and constituted a state secret. On April 12, 1961, Colonel Nikolai Martemyanov provided communications with the first cosmonaut. Never after that he did not give an interview, but today, in honor of Cosmonautics Day, agreed to tell NTV the details of Gagarin's flight that were unknown earlier.
According to Martemyanov, the preparation for the first flight was an emergency. Gagarin was put in the cabin of the spacecraft two hours before the start and then troubles began. It turned out that the entrance hatch did not close. Then Gagarin forgot to switch the toggle switch and disappeared from the ether. Martemyanov managed to do the impossible - with the help of a small radio station, he started broadcasting. Before the flight there was still enough time, and the general designer Sergey Korolev asked to include the bored cosmonaut music. Now it is precisely known that before the flight Gagarin listened to the songs of Bulat Okudzhava.

And then the starting countdown begins. Gagarin says his famous: "Let's go!". A primitive antenna, made of an army searchlight, regularly transmits signals to space. Svyazisty also prepare a cover act. If the rocket explodes, they must confuse American scouts. "Our duty was to continue the account," says Nikolai Martemyanov, "30 minutes is a normal flight," etc. Even if the missile already burned on the ground. "

Space television in those days was not there. Heads of flight heard Gagarin, but did not see him. During the time of Yuri Gagarin in space, 40 km of magnetic film was recorded. The coils were sealed and classified "top secret" for permanent storage.

Video: Start the "Vostok" with the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin

During the launch of the spacecraft sounded the famous replica of Gagarin "Let's go."

He circled the globe for 1 h 48 min and returned safely to Earth. For this feat letchkik cosmonaut was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

Yuri Gagarin's public activities

Awards and honorary titles of Yuri Gagarin

Publications Of Yuri Gagarin

Famous quotes of Yuri Gagarin

Yuri "On flight"

Songs dedicated to Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin

Iosif Kobzon "He said," Lets go" (Pahmutowa - N. Dobronravov)
Earring "Yuri Gagarin"
Oscar "How Yuri Gagarin"

I. Levchenko:

The sun on this day was sparkling:
What an amazing April it was!
And in the heart[ru] of joy with pride shone:
From Gagarin flew in space!

Everyone recognized him by his smile -
Such a smile was not the second!
The whole world applauded! Everyone cheered.
Gagarin flew around our globe!

Since then unknown distances have approached,
Ships are exploring space...
And started-Russian, nice guy,
GAGARIN - THE FIRST COSMONAUT OF EARTH!

Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин улыбается

He said" let's Go! " — and since then thousands of Soviet boys have dreamed of becoming cosmonauts... Many will fly, but they will remember the first one. The bloated glories and greatness, the names of kings and stars, will fade into Oblivion and be forgotten; Gagarin is an eternal name, because a man "with a boyish smile and the courage of an eagle" has realized the most fantastic and exuberant dream of mankind.

He called for restoring ancient monuments and strengthening Patriotic education among young people, so that they always remember their roots and be proud of their country.

"You look, the main thing — do not be proud," — the first thing said to Yuri's father Alexey Ivanovich after his famous flight. And he wasn't proud. Gagarin has always helped people. "Every request he considered mandatory and suffered when he could not do something," recalled the wife of the pilot-cosmonaut Valentina Ivanovna.

On July 17, 1971, the state Commission of the largest scientific ship in the world — Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, built at the Baltic shipyard in Leningrad, published a message on the reception.

On October 1, 2016, a bust of Yuri Gagarin was installed in the Greek city of Heraklion (Crete). The event is timed to the cross-year of Russia and Greece and the 55th anniversary of Gagarin's flight into space.

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