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Internet — description and history

Internet

Internet (the name comes from the Latin "inter" — "between" and English "net" — "network"; this article is in Russian this article is in Russia — Интернет) (this article is in RussianИнтернет) — is a worldwide network of computer resources with collective access based on the use of a single standard addressing scheme (system of information and computing resources), high-performance backbone and high-speed communication lines with the main network computers. Thanks to the fast connection and high speed data transmission, information on the Internet is easy and simple. New sites appear like mushrooms after the rain. Websites create webmasters who have their own professional holiday - Webmaster's day 4.04.

The birthday of Internet technology is celebrated on May 22. World Internet day is celebrated on April 4. Russian Internet day is celebrated on September 30.

Ethernet technology was developed together with many of the first projects of Xerox PARC Corporation. It is generally accepted that Ethernet was invented on May 22, 1973, when Robert Metcalf wrote a memo to the head of PARK about the potential of Ethernet technology. But Metcalf got the legal right to this technology a few years later. In 1976, he and his assistant David Boggs published a brochure entitled "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Area Networks".

The worldwide computer network, which brings together thousands of networks, includes networks of the armed forces and government organizations, educational institutions, charities, industrial enterprises and corporations of all kinds, as well as commercial enterprises (service providers) that provide individuals with access to the network. Among the types of Internet access are distinguished online (online) access, which allows you to use the network in real time, and offline (offline) access, when the job for the network is prepared in advance, and the connection is only the transfer or reception of the prepared data.

The information stored in many computer networks connected by the Internet forms a huge electronic library. The huge amount of data distributed between computer networks makes it difficult to find and obtain the desired information. Increasingly sophisticated tools have been developed to facilitate Internet search. Among them it should be noted such as Archie, Gopher and WAIS, commercial search engines (search engines, indices; the largest of them are Google, Yandex, Mail, MSN, AOL, Baidu, Yahoo!, ASK, Rambler, etc.), which are programs that use a search algorithm among a large volume of documents by keywords. The user receives search results in the form of a list of titles and descriptions of documents containing keywords sorted by relevance. A program such as Telnet allows users to connect from one computer to another remote computer on another network. FTP (file transfer Protocol) is used to transfer information between computers on different networks.

The Internet is the most dynamically developing environment of information exchange in the history of mankind. Modern possibilities of access to it from mobile phones and devices (mobile Internet), from a TV receiver, and also information exchange through a network of other devices, expand a circle of users.

From a technical point of view, the Internet is computers connected by cables to a Global Network. The wires at the bottom of the ocean connect the continents and connect billions of users. The device connected to the network is controlled by protocols based on the TCP/IP Protocol stack (Internet Protocol). The Protocol is the rules of data transfer between the nodes of a computer network.The Development Of The Internet

The development of the Internet consists of many thousands of corporate, scientific, government and home computer networks. Combining networks of different architecture and topology has become possible thanks to the IP Protocol and the principle of routing data packets. It gives a digital address to each member of the network.

The IP Protocol was specifically created agnostic with respect to physical communication channels. Any system (network), wired or wireless, for which there is a standard for encapsulating IP packets in it, transmits Internet traffic. IP agnosticism means that a computer or router must know the type of networks to which it is directly connected and be able to work with those networks; but it does not have to know which networks are behind the routers.

At the junctions of networks routers (software or hardware) are engaged in automatic sorting and redirection of data packets, based on the IP-addresses of the recipients of these packets. The IP Protocol forms a single address space around the world, but each individual network can have its own address subspace, which is selected based on the network class. This arrangement of IP addresses allows routers to determine the further direction for each packet of data. As a result, there are no conflicts between individual networks of the Internet, the data is freely and accurately transmitted from the network to the network across the planet and near space.

A router — is a device for connecting segments of a computer network. Routers to share information about the topology, network status, availability, channels and node availability in order to select the optimal path for packet transfer. This process of routing to the address of the subscriber system that receives the packet is called routing.

There are single-Protocol and multi-Protocol routers that can support multiple network protocols at the same time. Since there are protocols that do not contain network layer information, the routers have to perform the functions of a bridge. Therefore, modern Multiprotocol routers are called "bridge routers". The router can not only choose a route, but also split long messages into several short ones and use alternative ways to send them.

IP Protocol was born in discussions within the organization IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force; Task force — a group to solve the problems of Internet design). The IETF is open to participation and discussion. The committees of the organization publish RFC documents. These documents provide technical specifications and precise explanations on many issues. Some RFC documents are elevated by the IAB (Internet Architecture Board) to the status of Internet standards (Internet Standard). Since 1992, IETF, IAB and other Internet organizations have been members of the Internet Society (ISOC). The Internet society provides an institutional framework for various research and Advisory groups involved in Internet development.

Common Internet protocols

Computer network

OSI levelProtocols roughly corresponding to the OSI level
ApplicationBGP, DNS, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, LDAP, POP3, SNMP, SMTP, SSH, Telnet, XMPP (Jabber)
Session/ViewsSSL, TLS
TransportTCP, UDP
NetworkingEIGRP, ICMP, IGMP, IP, IS-IS, OSPF, RIP
ChannelArcnet, ATM, Ethernet, Frame relay, HDLC, PPP, L2TP, SLIP, Token ring

Popular, non-standardized protocols that are needed for file and text messaging, some of them built the entire file-sharing network.

There are also non-standard services that represent the original development of any company: various systems such as Instant Messenger (Internet pagers-ICQ, AOl, Demos on-line), Internet telephony systems (IP-telephony), radio and video broadcasting. The peculiarity of such systems is the lack of international standards, it can lead to technical conflicts with other similar services.

Now on the Internet there is a fairly large number of services that provide work with the full range of resources:

The concept of the world wide web was proposed by the famous British scientist Tim Berners-Lee, who for two years developed the HTTP Protocol, HTML language and URI identifiers.

HTTP (English. HyperText Transfer Protocol — "hypertext transfer Protocol") — the Protocol of the applied data transfer layer (initially-in the form of hypertext documents). HTTP is based on the client-server technology, that is, it assumes the existence of consumers (clients) that initiate the connection and send the request, and providers (servers) that wait for the connection to receive the request, perform the necessary actions and return the message with the result.

HTTP IS now commonly used on the world wide web to retrieve information from websites. In 2006, in North America, the share of HTTP traffic exceeded the share of P2P networks and amounted to 46 %, of which almost half is streaming video and audio.

HTTP is also used as a" transport " for other application layer protocols such as SOAP, XML-RPC, WebDAV.

You can browse the web using a special browser program. Web is the most popular Internet service. You can get to the desired web document by clicking on the link from another such document, or if you enter its URL (path) into the address bar in the browser.

There are many browsers — Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera and others. In Russia[ru] also appeared "Yandex. Browser", which was created on the basis of an open source browser Chromium, with fast loading pages, "smart" address bar, widgets, the ability to translate foreign sites. It was presented by Yandex in 2012 at its own technology conference Yet another Conference.

Enter the prefix Protocol http:// in the browser is not necessary. Also, do not enter the prefix "WWW". A beginner can access any website through the search engine. Also now popular Internet services such as web-surfing, web 2.0; Internet trading.

Search engine logos

The above services are standard. This means that the principles of building client and server software, as well as interaction protocols are formulated in the form of international standards. Software developers in the practical implementation must comply with the General technical requirements. John Postel played an active role in the development and standardization of network protocols.

The interface of interaction with transport layer protocols is developed for standard services. For each software server, standard TCP and UDP port numbers are reserved, which remain unchanged regardless of the features of a particular proprietary implementation of service components and transport protocols. The port numbers of the client software are not regulated, since the user node can have several copies of the client program, each of them must be identified by the transport Protocol, that is, each copy must have its own unique port number. It is also important for the client to regulate the ports of the server to know where to send the request, and the server will be able to respond to the client, knowing the address from the received request.

Russian writer, philosopher and public figure of the XIX century Vladimir Fedorovich Odoevsky in the unfinished utopian novel "4338-th year", written in 1837, the first predicted the emergence of the Internet: "between familiar houses arranged magnetic telegraphs, through which living at a far distance communicate with each other."

Nikola Tesla mentioned the idea of using electric information communication for business purposes in 1908. "When the project is completed, the businessman in new York will be able to dictate the instructions, and they will immediately appear in his office in London or any other place. He will be able to call from his workplace to any subscriber on the planet without changing the existing equipment. A cheap device, no larger than a clock[ru], will allow its owner to listen to music, songs, speeches of politicians, scientists, sermons of priests delivered over long distances on water and land. In the same way any image, symbol, picture, text can be transferred from one place to another. Millions of such devices can be controlled by a single station. However, more important than all this will be wireless transmission of energy.”

English writer Edward Morgan Forster in a fantastic dystopian novel "the Machine stops" (1909) depicted the world automatic system that serves humanity. People are completely dependent on it, gradually degrade physically and live[ru] bezvylazno and alone in their apartments-honeycombs, communicating only virtually. The system crashes and stops, everyone dies.

In Murray Leinster's story Logic by the name of Joe (1946), the Internet and its dangers are predicted. Logic (computers), United in a global network, control banks, telecommunications, flights. Defective logic Joe on the instructions of users looking for a network of people, recipes for making bombs at home.

Many science fiction writers have described large national or global computers, which can be called a prototype of modern Internet servers. Among them are Multivac (1955-1979), invented by Isaac Asimov, a Large all-Planet information Room (1970-1980-ies) Strugatsky brothers, a Large Academic Machine in the novel "People as gods" (1966) Sergei Snegov. In these cases, science fiction writers started from modern mainframes, increasing their scale.

The Internet is a huge repository of knowledge, free media, a means of sharing personal experiences. The development of this system began in 1957, against the background of an arms race, after the launch of the first artificial earth[ru] satellite by the Soviet Union. Fearing a military attack from the Soviet Union[ru] on America, the us Department of defense decided to create a reliable information transmission system and financed all work.

The Agency for advanced defense research and development of the United States[ru] (DARPA) proposed the creation of a computer network. The network was commissioned by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Stanford research Institute (SRI), the University of Utah, and the University of California, Santa Barbara. The computer network was named ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), and in 1969, as part of the project, the network brought together four of these scientific institutions. Then ARPANET network began to grow and develop, it was used by scientists from different fields of science. As a result, a network of computers was developed that are interconnected and able to exchange information with each other.

The first server ARPANET was installed September 2, 1969 at the University of California. The Honeywell DP-516 computer had 24 KB of RAM.

October 29, 1969 (this date can be considered the birthday of the Internet) between the first two nodes of the ARPANET network, located at a distance of 640 km — at the University of California and Stanford research Institute — held a communication session. Charlie Kline (Charlie Kline) tried to perform a remote connection from Los Angeles to a computer in Stanford. Successful transmission of each entered character of his colleague bill Duvall (Bill Duvall) confirmed by phone.

For the first time it was possible to send only three characters "LOG", after that the network ceased to function. LOG should have been the word LOGIN. The next attempt was successful. It all started with a network of computers located in one room, then the network expanded within the building, city, country[ru].

In the 1970s, the first mailing lists, newsgroups and Bulletin boards appeared. At that time, the network could not yet easily interact with other networks built on other technical standards. By 1971, the first program to send e-mail over the network was developed.

The birth of the Internet as a worldwide computer network occurred in 1973: the first foreign organizations from the UK[ru] and Norway were connected to the network of scientists with the help of a transatlantic telephone cable, the network became international.

In his work" the World in half a century "in 1974, Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov wrote:" in the future, perhaps later than 50 years, I assume the creation of a world information system (vis), which will make available to everyone at any moment the content of any book, ever and anywhere published, the content of any article, getting any help. The vis should include individual miniature request receivers, transmitters, control stations, information flow control, communication channels, including thousands of artificial communication satellites, cable and laser lines. Even partial implementation of the vis will have a profound impact on everyone's life, leisure time, intellectual and artistic development. Unlike television, which is the main source of information for many contemporaries, the vis will provide everyone with maximum freedom in the choice of information and require individual activity.”

By the end of the 1970s, data transmission protocols began to develop rapidly and were standardized in 1982-1983.

On January 1, 1983, ARPANET switched from NCP to TCP/IP. At the same time, the term "Internet" was assigned to the ARPANET.

The Internet, cyberspace and virtual reality are also reflected in contemporary art. In the mid-1980s, a special subgenre of science fiction was formed, focusing on high technologies and the problems arising in society in connection with the destructive use of the fruits of technological progress. The plot of the works of this genre is the struggle of hackers with powerful corporations. The genre became widespread in the movies, alternative music, graphic works (anime). The term cyberpunk was coined and coined by writer Bruce betke, who published the story of the same name in 1983. Less common are such branches of the genre as cybertrash and nanobank.

In 1984, the domain name system was developed. And the ARPANET network has a serious rival: the national science Foundation of the United States (NSF) founded an extensive inter-University network NSFNet (National Science Foundation Network), which was composed of smaller networks (Bitnet) and had much greater bandwidth than ARPANET. About 10 thousand computers were connected to this network in a year, the name "Internet" began to pass to NSFNet.

The freedom of Internet users to access information resources is not limited to state borders and/or national domains, but language boundaries remain. The predominant language of the Internet is English. Russian language takes 2nd place. The name of the language spheres of the Internet is given by the name of the language used. The Russian-speaking sphere of the Internet is called the "Russian Internet". Runet-Russian-speaking part of the world wide web. 1987-1994 were the key years in the birth of the Russian-language Internet. In Russia, Internet Day is celebrated on September 30.

March 15, 1985 was registered the first domain in the zone .com. Its name comes from the word "commercial", indicating its original purpose — domains registered by commercial organizations.

The IRC Protocol was developed in 1988.

IRC (persistent. Internet Relay Chat) - application layer Protocol for real-time messaging. Designed primarily for group communication, it also allows you to communicate through private messages and share data, including files.

IRC uses TCP transport Protocol and cryptographic TLS (optional).

IRC began to gain special popularity after operation desert Storm in 1991, when messages from all over the world gathered in one place and were broadcast on-line to IRC.

Due to the technical simplicity of implementation, the IRC Protocol has recently been used in the organization of botnets as a means of transferring control commands to the computers-botnet participants from the owner.

In 1989, the concept of the world wide web was born in Europe, within the walls of the European Council for nuclear research (CERN).

In 1990 the ARPANET ceased to exist, completely losing the competition NSFNet. In the same year, the first Internet connection was recorded on the telephone line ("dial-up", dialup access).

In the 1990s, the Internet combined most of the then existing networks (FidoNet remained isolated). The Association looked attractive due to the lack of unified management and openness of technical standards of the Internet, which made the network independent from business and specific companies.

Trolling is a psychological and social phenomenon that has developed on the Internet in these years and prevents normal communication on the Network. Internet trolls (troll) call the people who post provocative messages, "stuffing" intended to foment conflict between their participants, to cause to flame, and insult.

28 August 1990, is a professional research network, who grew up in the bowels of the Institute of atomic energy name I. V. Kurchatov and PKI minavtoprom and bringing together physicists and programmers, United with the global Internet network, ushering in the modern Russian networks.

On September 19, 1990, the first level domain was registered .su in the database of the InterNIC International information centre. As a result, the Soviet Union became available via the Internet.

In 1991, the world wide web became available on the Internet.

In 1993 the web browser Mosaic NCSA Mark Andreessen. The world wide web was gaining popularity.

On April 7, 1994, the domain was registered in InterNIC .ru (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for Russia) is the national top-level domain for Russia. Now this domain is the sixth most popular national top-level domain, being widespread not only in Russia but also in the CIS countries.

In 1995 NSFNet returned to the role of research networks, routing all Internet traffic is now engaged in network providers.

Commercial Internet providers are connected through traffic exchange points, research networks are combined into their subnets:

In the same year, the world wide web became the main provider of information. The web has transformed the Internet and created its modern look. It is the combination of web Protocol of Tim Berners-Lee, who provided the communication, and browser (Mosaic) from Marc Andreessen, who provided the perfect functional user interface, created the conditions for the observed explosion (of interest to Web). In the first 2 years since the advent of the browser, the Web has passed the stage of complete uncertainty (beyond a few people within a narrow group of scientists and specialists of only one little-known profile of activity) to complete and absolutely everywhere in the world of its prevalence. (A Brief History of Cyberspace, Mark Pesce, ZDNet, 15 October 1995).

Belgian researcher Robert Cayo “ " the History of all great inventions is based on a large number of previous ones. In the case of the world wide web (WWW), two key ways of developing and building knowledge and technology are to be noted in this context:

Since 1996, the world wide web has almost completely replaced the term "Internet".

Model the Internet

On the 3D model of www-network each square cell (in Fig. it is shown below, on the right) is a network of computers connected to a single host — provider (or through a router among themselves), providing access to the Internet. Each provider itself, in turn, is only a very small part of the global Internet.

By 1997, there were about 10 million computers on the Internet and more than 1 million domain names were registered. A domain is a semantic word or name of a site to remember its address. Domain is the mask for this IP address "69.73.128.180". The computer uses this address to download the page. If you want to view the main page of the site, you need to enter the domain in the address bar of the browser. The main page opens, where you can go to the internal links. If you enter the address incorrectly or click on the broken link, the site or browser will report that an error occurred, the requested page is not present and will display a page with 404 error. By mistake, you can get to an advertising or fake website. In the first case, it is better to fix the error in the address without touching the links on the advertising site — they can be infected with a virus or simply useless. In the second case, it is not immediately possible to notice that something is wrong, such sites are created for fraud (phishing). To protect yourself from computer viruses and phishing, anti-virus software is installed on computers. There are both free and paid programs. According to tests, the best antivirus software of 2013 were recognized:

At the beginning of the XXI century Eskimos got acquainted with the Internet, the term needed to be translated into their language. Experts have chosen the word "ikiaqqivik" - "journey through the layers". Previously, this word was used to describe the actions of the shaman, who to find an answer to any question "traveled" through time and space.

Azerbaijan mark 35 years of the Internet

35 years of the Internet, 1969-2004. Stamp Of Azerbaijan, 2004.

Since January 22, 2010, the crew of the International space station has received direct access to the Internet.

The domain was delegated on may 12, 2010."RF " in the root zone of DNS (punycode: xn--p1ai; Russian Federation), allowing the use of Cyrillic characters in the URL address. According to the statistics Of the technical center "Internet", at the end of 2010 in the zone .about 700 thousand domains were registered in Russia, about 350 thousand of them were delegated. According to the coordination center of the national Internet domain, from domain names in the zone .Russian Federation, registered to date, only 8% are common words of the Russian language. Other domains are names of people, characters, company names. Most of the names belong to trademark owners. Half of the names are registered in Moscow, another 9 % — in the Moscow region, 8 % — in St. Petersburg.

On June 3, 2011, a UN resolution recognizing Internet access as a basic human right was adopted. Disconnection of certain regions from the Internet is a violation of human rights. The Internet has no owner, because it is a collection of networks that have different geographical affiliation. He became the property of all mankind. Reading information obtained from the Internet or any other computer network refers to non-public reproduction of the work. For the dissemination of information on the Internet (disclosure), if it is a state or other secret, slander, other prohibited by law to disseminate information, possible legal liability.

By June 30, 2012, the number of users was more than 2.4 billion people (more than a third of the World's population used the Internet).

The unofficial patron of the Internet from the Catholic Church is Isidore of Seville.

In the 4th edition of the "Russian spelling dictionary" Russian Academy of Sciences (2012), in accordance with the practice of writing and Spelling decision of the Commission of Sciences were offered two variants of spelling the word "Internet" capitalized and a lowercase letter. The word is inclined by the rules of Russian grammar as a masculine noun, so it should be written:"the structure of the Internet."

In Russia, the Abilene Network project is known as a high-speed experimental network created and supported by the American consortium Internet2 (Internet2). The consortium is a non-profit organization that develops advanced applications and networking technologies. Abilene unites more than 230 American universities and research centers. A feature of the Abilene network is a high data rate, theoretically it can reach 10 Gbit / s (OC-192c), the actual speed is about 6-8 Gbit/s.

The first Internet cafes in Cuba with free Internet access were opened only in June 2013.

40 years have passed, the computer network has undergone a number of significant changes. Now the Internet is available to most people in the civilized world. You can connect to it through communication satellites, radio channels, cable TV, telephone, cellular communication, special fiber-optic lines or electrical wires.

Fiber-optic transmission line (volp), Fiber-optic communication line (VOLS — the term is prohibited by GOST 26599-85) is a fiber — optic system consisting of passive and active elements designed to transmit information in the optical (usually near infrared) range.

The world wide web has become an integral part of life in developed and developing countries. The web annually attracts millions of new users to its networks. The average person can hardly imagine his existence without it. The modern Internet has a lot of cultural facets.

The Internet is a way of mass communication of people United by different interests and views. Communication on the Network to start psychologically easier than in person. The Internet allows you to easily communicate with people, no matter where in the world they are. Someone for this uses Web forums, blogs, sitting for hours in search of like-minded people, classmates, his half in Dating services. In Russia, the most common social networks: Vkontakte, Odnoklassniki, Facebook. Such Internet communities are gradually beginning to play a significant role in the life of the whole society. The user has the opportunity not only to communicate, but also to share the fruits of their creativity with a multi-million audience. The Internet inspires creativity, self-development, personal growth. Many have found their favorite hobby thanks to the Network. Famous authors and novice writers and poets spread their creations on the Internet.

Someone more like communication using Skype-a free proprietary software with a closed code, providing encrypted voice and video over the Internet between computers (VoIP), using peer-to-peer technology and paid services for calls to mobile and landline phones.

Many people use the Internet to Supplement their knowledge in different areas: read useful articles, register for remote on-line courses and trainings, watch video tutorials, news, play multiplayer games, pass tests (see different tests[ru]).

By genre online publications do not differ from offline — there are children's[ru] sites, women's and others. If offline editions are issued periodically (once a day, week, month), the online editions are updated as new material becomes available. There is also Internet radio and Internet TV IPTV.

Thanks to the development of Internet media, the number of people who prefer to read[ru] the paper press is decreasing every year. Public opinion polls in 2009 showed that only 19 % of US residents aged 18 to 35 years view the paper press. The average age of readers of paper Newspapers in the United States is 55 years. The total circulation of Newspapers produced in the United States from 1989 to 2009 decreased from 62 million to 49 million copies a day.

The spread of music on the Internet began with the advent of MP3 format, compressing audio files to sizes suitable for transmission on the Internet while maintaining the quality of the recording. The emergence of the Internet individual songs from the album, artist serves him well and is significantly increases the level of record sales.

The development of the Internet, which is used as a means of communication, has led to the increasing spread of remote work as a form of employment. The worldwide Network provides ample opportunities in terms of earnings. You can make money on the Internet by opening your own online store, creating a website, creating a unique information product. Beginners can start with freelancing: fill websites with content, engage in programming and web design, sell photos, come up with slogans.

Special online currency, electronic payment systems, allow you to make transactions and purchases at online auctions online, without leaving home. Money can be exchanged, buy shares, perform other operations. According to the research, most Internet resources are related to commercial activities. The Internet is used for the direct sale of goods and services, marketing research and management of Bank accounts. According to the Oxford Economics report, the total e-Commerce volume of goods and services, as well as the digital products and services market, is collectively estimated at $ 20.4 trillion worldwide, representing approximately 13.8% of global sales.

Wiki projects (Wikipedia/Википедия, an online encyclopedia created by volunteers, is one of the largest of its kind); digital libraries available via the Internet contain a huge number of works. Many books available online have long been a rarity, and some have not been published at all. Movies (using BitTorrent technology) are illegally uploaded to the Internet. Due to the ease of copying, downloading different files on the Internet, the problem of copyright protection has become particularly relevant.

The Internet has many useful and harmful properties exploited by stakeholders. Sites on the Internet distribute information individually, on the initiative of the reader. Spam servers and" zombie networks " distribute information at the initiative of the sender and clog the mailboxes of e-mail users with spam as well as the real mailboxes of distributors of advertising leaflets and brochures.

Spam (persistent. spam-sausage stuffing) - advertising on the Internet, mass mailing of which is carried out by firms to known e-mail addresses without the consent of the recipients (garbage mail). The information sent in this way is not credible. Spam emails may contain files with computer viruses. There is also a so-called "search spam", when the search results display pages that do not match the request.

You can protect yourself from unwanted content by installing filters on your computer. The most effective method of censorship on the Internet is working with providers. You can enter a list of addresses that are not available to users.

To overcome censorship on the Internet use access to blocked resources through other permitted. These are web proxies and proxy servers, anonymizers and anonymous networks, RSS aggregators, web services for translating web page content by specifying the page address (Google Translate), VPN.

The unified register of domain names

In Russia there was created a Single domain name registry, indexes pages sites network "Internet" and network addresses, allowing to identify sites in a network "Internet" containing information which distribution in the Russian Federation is prohibited, the automated information management system and use of a database of sites containing prohibited for distribution in Russia.

Check the website in the registry is prohibited can be produced in a special form on the website eais.rkn.gov.ru

The register is administered by Roskomnadzor in accordance with the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of October 26, 2012 № 1101 "on the unified automated information system "Unified register of domain names, pointers of pages of sites in the information and telecommunication network "Internet" and network addresses, allowing to identify sites in the information and telecommunications network "Internet" containing information, the distribution of which is prohibited in the Russian Federation".

The register was created according to the Federal law FZ-139 of July 28, 2012 which was brought in the Federal law N 149-FZ "about information, information technologies and about information protection" article 151. This article establishes, in particular, the grounds for inclusion of sites in the list of prohibited sites.

Pre-trial closure of the sites is possible after the decision of the Federal body in the presence of child pornography or announcements about the involvement of minors as performers in the activities of a pornographic nature; information about the manufacture or receipt of drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors; information about the methods of committing suicide, as well as calls for its Commission; information about minors affected by crimes. Also subject to the closure of resources containing information, the dissemination of which is prohibited by a court decision.

21 Nov 2013 in "the Russian newspaper" has published the Order of Roskomnadzor, Russian Federal drug control service and Rospotrebnadzor on September 11, 2013 N 1022/368/666 about the approval of criteria of assessment of the materials and/or information necessary for adoption by authorized state bodies of decisions on inclusion of domain names and/or indexes of pages of the sites on the Internet, and also the network addresses allowing to identify the sites on the Internet containing the forbidden information in "the Unified register of domain names, indexes of pages of the sites on the information and telecommunication Internet" and the network of the network of the Internet allowing to identify the sites on the information and telecommunication network "the Internet" containing information, which distribution in the Russian Federation is forbidden".

Since the Internet first developed spontaneously, it was only at the stage of its transformation into a global network that States began to show interest in its functioning. So far, the possibilities of censorship are limited, as no other state in the world has decided to completely disconnect internal networks from external ones. Many information resources are officially subjected to moderation their published information, depending on the policy and its own internal rules. This is not contrary to the democratic principles of freedom of speech.

In many countries, there are serious restrictions on the functioning of the network, that is, at the state level, there is a ban on access to individual sites (analytical, pornographic), to the entire network. China has implemented the Golden shield project-a traffic filtering system on the Internet channel between providers and international information transmission networks.

The Internet is only a medium, a universal information environment, as well as a telephone network or just paper. In the world there is a state monopoly on the very connection to the Internet.

Internet addictionThere were also negative aspects of the use of the Internet. Some people are fond of virtual space and begin to prefer the Internet reality, spending at the computer up to 18 hours a day. Psychological Internet addiction is compared with drug addiction — physiological dependence on drugs, where there is a mental component. Internet addiction is defined as an obsessive desire to connect to the Internet and a painful inability to disconnect from it in time. This is a far-reaching problem. According to various studies, Internet addicts today are about 10% of users worldwide. Russian psychiatrists believe that now in the country of such 4-6 %.

The Internet cannot be turned off entirely because network routers do not have a single external control. Unencrypted information can be intercepted and read along the transportation route. The dissemination of information on the Internet is of the same nature as rumours. If there is a great interest in information, it spreads quickly and widely, there is no interest — there is no dissemination.

Further improvement of the Internet is associated with the introduction of the concept of semantic web, it will allow people and computers to interact more effectively in the process of creation, classification and processing of information.

On January 7, 2001, employees of the British Institute of social inventions organized the international Internet Free Day (international day without the Internet), the purpose of which was the call of citizens around the world to devote at least one day a year to ordinary human activities without the intervention of high technology. The world community celebrates this holiday once a year on the last Sunday of January.

On October 4, 2004, a publicly available NGINX release was released - is an HTTP server and reverse proxy server, as well as a mail proxy server that runs on Unix-like operating systems. The build and operation was tested on Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, AIX, and HP-UX. A binary build for Microsoft Windows appeared starting with nginx version 0.7.52. Russian programmer Igor Sysoev started developing the NGINX server in 2002. The web server is written in the "C" programming language. In 2011, Igor Sysoev founded Nginx, Inc., where a team of developers develops and promotes the product he created. In this company, Igor Sysoev holds the position of chief technical Director. As of 2013, the NGINX web server continues to be updated and supported. NGINX is a simple, reliable, and fast server that is not overloaded with features. Using the NGINX web server is rational, mainly for static websites, as well as as a proxy server before dynamic websites.

NGINX fully supports the HTTP/1.1, SPDY/2, WebSocket, FastCGI, uwsgi, and SCGI protocols, and therefore allows users to connect to popular applications such as Joomla, WordPress, Magento, Drupal, and others hosted on a single server or network to improve performance and scalability.

Due to its compact and predictable memory and CPU usage, NGINX is an extremely popular web software for use in all types of cloud environments, serving more than 45% of the websites hosted on Amazon AWS.

NGINX provides simple integration using frameworks such as Rails, Node.js, Jobs, Django or Zend. By replacing or supplementing the configuration of legacy applications shipped with the server, NGINX allows you to scale and create websites without buying extra hardware.

According to Netcraft data for may 2013, the number of sites served by NGINX is more than 70 million, so IT is the third most popular web server in the world. At the same time, NGINX serves 13.54% of the total number of high-load sites that use this web server. This fact makes NGINX the second most popular web server in the world, second only to the Apache web server.

NGINX is a key software component for modern websites such as: WordPress.com, SourceForge.net, Netflix, Amazon, GitHub, Pinterest, CloudFlare, Airbnb, Foursquare, Zynga, Eventbrite, NASA/JPL, Zappos, FastMail.FM, SoundCloud, Media Temple, RightScale, Heroku, Engine Yard, ZenDesk, and many other companies.

November 5, 2015 in the domain .RU a five million domain name was registered.

On November 1, 2017, a law came into force that prohibits the use of anonymizers, VPN services and other means of bypassing Internet locks. The new law prohibits the use of information systems and programs to gain access to Internet resources blocked in Russia. Now, if such services refuse to block access to prohibited content, they will be blocked by Roskomnadzor.

On April 19, 2018, the Government of the Russian Federation approved the rules for storing text messages and voice Internet traffic by operators. According to the document, operators are obliged to start storing information for 30 days from October 1, 2018.

In December 2018, a bill was submitted to the state Duma, implying the isolation of the Russian Internet from foreign servers. It is expected that in this way the inhabitants of the country will be protected as much as possible from data leakage. It is planned that the Autonomous work of the Runet will be carried out with the help of some "technical means" to determine the sources of traffic. Roskomnadzor will have new powers, and communications operators will be required to comply with its requirements for traffic routing and provide the possibility of centralized management. If necessary, you can block access to sites not only by network addresses, but also by closing the passing traffic. In an interview with TASS on December 24, 2018, the head of Roskomnadzor Alexander Zharov announced that any country should be ready for isolation. According to the estimates of experts from the working group "Communications and IT", to conduct research, create and maintain a register of exchange points, expand the staff of Roskomnadzor structures and their training will require about 25 billion rubles. Also, operators may have problems with the Network, which will also require compensation. Experts also stressed that the text of the bill is not clear what exactly is the threat to the residents of the Russian Federation.

February 1, 2019 will come a new era of the Internet, in which there will be no place for the old DNS-Protocol, and this day will be called "DNS Flag Day", which is associated with the beginning of the gradual transition of some DNS-services and manufacturers of DNS-servers to the EDNS Protocol. Updated all the most popular software that is responsible for the operation of the DNS. With 1.02.2019 year, all EDNS servers that don't support modern standard, will not be available forever and you can get on them would be impossible.

On March 18, 2019, President Vladimir Putin[ru] signed a law that penalizes contempt for power on the Internet. It States that in case of detection in the Network of publications that indecently offend human dignity, society, state or state symbols, law enforcement agencies should contact Roskomnadzor, which in turn is obliged to block the page with the illegal message. However, the Federal Agency must notify the blocking 24 hours in advance, giving the opportunity to delete the message on its own. The bill provides for administrative punishment and a fine of up to 300 thousand RUB, the company Informed the HRC under the President felt the document contrary to the Constitution, which guarantees everyone the freedom of thought and speech and asked the first senators, and then Putin not to pass the bill. On March 29, 2019, the law came into force.

Vitaly Anatol'evich Kalashnikov:

An old song sings:
After us in this world
A couple of faxes remain
And a page on the Internet...

On may 24, 2019, the heavy American carrier rocket Falcon 9 put into orbit 60 mini-satellites to create a global network of Internet coverage of the Starlink system. Launched into orbit 60 satellites Starlink were the first of about 12 thousand devices needed to create a full-scale network that will provide broadband Internet access in any corner of the planet. According to SpaceX, the cost of the starlink project will be $ 10 billion.

On November 1, 2019, most of the amendments to the laws "on communications" and "on information, information technologies and information protection", which were informally called the law on "sovereign Runet", came into effect in Russia. It is believed that the changes in the legislation were made in order to protect the Russian segment of the Internet from external threats. The authors of the law on "sovereign Runet" were deputy Andrei Klishas and Lyudmila Bokova, as well as Deputy Andrei Lugovoy. The law provides for the installation of special equipment provided by Roskomnadzor to all communication operators. In case of threats, it will help to manage traffic routing. In addition, the installed equipment will allow users to restrict access to banned Internet resources in Russia.

International safe Internet Day

International safer Internet Day is celebrated on the second Tuesday of February. In January 2004, the European Commission, with the support of the non-profit organizations European School Net and Insafe, which acts as the main coordinator, decided to celebrate Safer Internet Day. The main goal of this event is to promote safer and more responsible use of mobile phones and the use of Internet technologies among the younger generation and adults throughout our planet.

The organizers of this event emphasize the important role of developing Internet information services in the formation and formation of personality, as well as norms of behavior and worldview of young people in a digital society. This event includes more than 1 thousand events that promote educational programs on the use of the Internet without risky situations. Serious attention is paid to the creation of helplines, including for the purpose of direct cooperation with young people, on whom the modern world community has high hopes.

Not only countries that have their own national Centers can participate in Safer Internet Day, but also those who sent a preliminary application to the organizer. A larger number of interested people who support this holiday allows you to make online life more positive and interesting, and almost without any risk.

Songs about the Internet

Verka Serdyuchka — " Internet
Trofim (Sergey Trofimov) — Internet
Act1Ones Ft. Inna Karpenko I fell in love[en] with the Internet
Your nameCoin

Movies about the Internet

"History Of The Internet" - A Film Meliha Bilgili. Voice: Ing Longtan. Translation: Smartvideo. (c) Melih Bilgil

 

"Network travel." (c) ERICSSON Medialab

 

Celebrity Quotes about the Internet

His Holiness Patriarch Kirill on the principles of the Church's information activity on the Internet:

"We must be able to use the Internet in church work."

"Our time is often referred to as the era of the information society. And we are really seeing how information is becoming increasingly important in the lives of modern people. In these conditions, our response to the information challenges of our time should be based on professionalism and the ability to use the tools of mass media in church work."

Bill Murray:

"In fact, the Internet has brought people back to books. People began to constantly read from the screen — and began to read much more than before."

Stanislav Lem:

"Until I used the Internet, I didn't know there were so many idiots in the world."

History of the "@" sign

The "@" sign was used during the Renaissance – in the XV-XVI centuries. In Spanish, Portuguese and French, this symbol traditionally meant an arroba — a measure of weight equal to 12-13 kg. Then the "dog" migrated to the invoices, where its use helped to shorten the entries — it was a cursive version of the English preposition "at" in the meaning of "by". Since this sign was used in accounting documents, it naturally appeared on the keyboards of the first typewriters. It was there that Ray Tomlinson, a researcher at the American company BBN Technology, saw him when he was developing an email program that allowed him to send messages to a remote computer. So the sign became an email symbol.

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