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Great Patriotic War 1941-1945

The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 (this article is in Russian[ru] - Великая отечественная война) - the war of liberation of the Soviet people against Nazi Germany and its allies (Hungary, Italy, Romania, Finland); most important part of the World War II[ru].

Direct preparation for an attack on the Soviet Union[en], Germany began in 1940 (the plan "Barbarossa"). Together with its European allies, Germany has focused for the attack on the USSR 191.5 divisions; enemy forces totaled 5.5 million. people, about 4.3 thousand. tanks and assault guns, 47.2 thousand. guns and mortars, about 5 thousand. warplanes, 192 ships. Germany planned against the USSR "lightning war" ("Blitzkrieg").

The efforts of the Soviet Union in the 30s to create a system of collective security have failed. Non-aggression pact with Germany (August 1939) allowed to delay the beginning of the war. However, signed at the same time and at the conclusion in September 1939 treaty of friendship and the border with Germany secret protocols were incompatible with international law, undermine the prestige of the country. The country's defense has been undermined by the totalitarian regime pursued socio-economic policies, massive repression, coverage and military personnel, as well as major failures in military construction, in determining the likely timing of the start of the war, the main fault lies on what Stalin and his entourage. By June 1941 the Red Army had 187 divisions; in its composition was ok. 3 million. People, more than 38 thousand. Guns and mortars, 13.1 thous. Tanks, 8,7 thousand. Warplanes; in the North, Baltic[ru] and Black Sea Fleets numbered 182 ships and 1.4 thousand. warplanes. Soviet troops were not fully manned, tanks, planes, anti-aircraft, automobiles, engineering machinery; troops and command structure had a low level of training.

June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany treacherously attacked the Soviet Union. Creating on the direction of impact overwhelming, the aggressor broke through the defense of the Soviet troops seized the strategic initiative and dominance in the air. Border battle and beginning of the war (until mid-July) as a whole led to the defeat of the Red Army. She lost 850 killed and wounded thousands. Man 9.5 thousand. Pieces, St. 6 thousand. Tank, approx. 3.5 thousand. Aircraft; were captured approx. 1 million. People. The enemy has occupied much of the country, moved inland to 300-600 km, while losing 100 thousand. People killed, almost 40% of tanks and 950 aircraft.

June 23 was created Command Headquarters (August 8 - GHQ). All power was concentrated in the created June 30 the State Defense Committee (GKO). On August 8, Stalin became the Supreme Commander. The main military events of summer-autumn campaign in 1941 was the Battle of Smolensk, the defense of Leningrad and the beginning of its blockade, military catastrophe of Soviet troops in the Ukraine[ru], the defense of Odessa, the beginning of the defense of Sevastopol, loss of Donbass, the defensive during the Battle of Moscow. The Red Army retreated to 850-1200 km, but the enemy was stopped on the main lines of Leningrad, Moscow and Rostov and turned to defense. Winter 1941-42 campaign began counter-offensive on the western strategic direction. In the course of its counterattack carried out at Moscow, Luban, Rzhev-Vyazemskaya Barvenkovsky-Lozovskaya and Kerch-Feodosiya landing operation. Soviet troops withdrew a threat to Moscow and the North. Caucasus, eased the position of Leningrad, wholly or partly released in 10 regions, as well as St. 60 cities. The strategy of "blitzkrieg" collapsed. Was crushed approx. 50 enemy divisions.

Molotov's speech on the radio June 23, 1941.

In the summer-autumn campaign of 1942, Soviet troops had unrealistic goals: to completely defeat the enemy and liberate the entire country. The main military events unfolded in the south-west: the defeat of the Crimean front, military catastrophe of Soviet troops in the Kharkov operation, the Voronezh-Voroshilovgrad, Donbass, Stalingrad defensive operations, the battle on the North. Caucasus. In the north-western direction, the Red Army had Demyansk and Rzhev-Sychevka offensive operations. The enemy advanced on the 500-650 km, reached the Volga, took part of the passes of the Main Caucasian ridge. Was occupied territory, where lived before the war 42% of the population, producing 1/3 of gross production, there were more than 45% of the acreage. Economy translated into a war footing. In the east of the country was moved a large number of enterprises (only in the 2nd half of 1941 - 2593, in Vol. H. 1523 large) exported 2.3 million. Cattle. In the 1st half of 1942 was released 10 thousand. Aircraft, 11 thousand. Tank, approx 54 thousand. Guns. In the 2nd half of their output has increased by more than 1.5 times. Soviet-British agreement of July 12, 1941 Moscow conference of representatives of the USSR, the US and the UK[ru] (29 September - 1 October 1941), the Declaration of 26 states from January 1, 1942 a military alliance of countries who fought against fascism, the Soviet-American agreement on June 11, 1942 formalized the core anti-Hitler coalition.

On July 22, 1941, exactly one month after the war began, the German aircraft made the first RAID on Moscow. From that day on, such attacks became regular. Destroy the capital of the third Reich bomber force failed. The air defense system of Moscow was effective and reduced the effectiveness of German air strikes to a minimum. The Germans, breaking towards the city, carrying a very large loss.

The text of Stalin's order Not a step back!.

In the winter campaign of 1942-1943 were the major military events of Stalingrad and North Caucasian offensive, break the siege of Leningrad. The Red Army moved west to 600-700 km, freeing the territory of more than 480 km2, crushed 100 divisions (40% of enemy forces on the Soviet-German front). Created favorable conditions for the completion of the Allied offensive in North Africa, Sicily and Southern Italy.

In the summer-autumn campaign of 1943 was a decisive event in the Battle of Kursk. The important role played by the guerrillas ("Operation Rail war"). During the Battle of the Dnieper were released 38 thousand. Populated areas, in Vol. H. 160 cities; with the capture of the strategic bridgehead on the Dnieper created the conditions for an offensive in Belorussia. In the battle for the Dnieper guerrillas carried out an operation "Concert" for the destruction of enemy communications. On the other. Directions implemented Smolensk and Bryansk offensive operations. Red Army has fought its way up to 500-1300 km, crushed 218 divisions. An important stage in the development of international and inter-allied relations became Tehran Conference (28 November - 1 December 1943).

In the winter campaign of 1943-1944, the Red Army conducted an offensive in the Ukraine (10 simultaneous and successive front-line operations, joint general plan), has completed the rout of Army Group "South", came out on the border with Romania and suffered fighting on its territory. Almost simultaneously turned Leningrad-Novgorod Offensive; Leningrad was finally released. As a result of the Crimean operation liberated Crimea. Soviet troops advanced to the west to 250-450 km, released about 300 thousand. Km2, reached the state border with Czechoslovakia.

In June 1944, the Allies discovered the 2nd front in France, which worsened the military and political situation in Germany. In the summer-autumn campaign of 1944, Soviet troops had Belarusian, Lvov-Sandomierz, East Carpathian, Iasi-Chisinau, Baltic, Debrecen, Eastern Carpathian, Belgrade, Budapest and partly Petsamo-Kirkenes offensive operations. Completed the liberation of Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic states (except for some areas of Latvia), part of Czechoslovakia, forced to surrender and went to war against Germany, Romania and Hungary, have been released from the occupants of the Soviet Arctic and northern regions of Norway.

On July 23, 1944, Soviet troops liberated the concentration camp Majdanek.

On July 23, 1944, the troops of the 3rd Baltic front (Colonel-General I. I. Maslennikov) liberated Pskov from Nazi invaders.

On 28 July 1944, during the Lublin-Brest operation, the city of Brest was liberated by the troops of The 1st Belarusian front. In honor of this event, one of the streets of the city (July 28). Also, July 28 is the day of the city.

4-11 February 1945 Yalta Conference was held Crimean leaders of the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States.

April 25, 1945 near the town of Torgau on the Elbe troops of the 1st Ukrainian front Marshal Ivan Stepanovich Konev met with the troops of the American 1st us army General Courtney Hodges. The territory of Germany and the remains of the Wehrmacht were dissected — as a result of the meeting of the allied forces, the remains of the German armed forces were split into two parts — North and South.

Campaign 1945 in Europe included the East Prussian, Vistula-Oder, the completion of Budapest, East Pomeranian, Lower Silesia, Upper Silesian, West-Carpathian, Vienna and Berlin operations, which resulted in the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. After the Berlin operation Soviet troops together with the 2nd Army of the Polish Army, the 1st and 4th Romanian armies and the 1st Czechoslovak Corps had Prague operations. June 24 in Moscow Victory Parade was held. At occurred in July - August, the Berlin conference of the three great powers had agreed on the postwar world in Europe.

Accepting surrender, the Soviet Union did not sign peace with Germany, that is, stayed with Germany in a state of war. The war with Germany was concluded on January 21, 1955 by the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Nevertheless, the Day of Victory is May 9 - the day of signing the Act of unconditional surrender of Germany.

August 9, 1945 the Soviet Union, fulfilling allied obligations, began military operations against Japan. During the Manchurian operation Soviet troops defeated the Kwantung Army, liberated South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. September 2, 1945, Japan signed the act of unconditional surrender.

On the Soviet-German front were defeated and captured 607 enemy divisions, destroyed 75% of its military equipment. According to various reports, Wehrmacht losses amounted to 6,000,000. To 13.7 million. Man. The USSR lost approx 27 million. Man in t. H. 11.3 million. Man at the front, 4-5 million. Partisans, many people were killed in the occupied territories and in the rear. In Nazi prisoner of war turned out approx 6 million. man. The material damage amounted to 679 billion. Rubles. In severe bloody war the Soviet people made a decisive contribution to the liberation of the peoples of Europe from the fascist yoke. Victory Day (May 9) is celebrated every year as a national holiday and a day of remembrance for the victims.

In the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet troops entered the 28th reserve army, in which the drawing force for the guns were camels. It was formed in Astrakhan during the fighting at Stalingrad: the lack of cars and horses forced to fish in the vicinity of wild camels and tame them. Most of the 350 animals died on the battlefield in various battles, and gradually transferred to the surviving part of the household and "demobilized" in zoos. Two camels named Yasha and Masha and the soldiers came to Berlin.

Attempts to destroy the German race

In 1944, us President Franklin Delano Roosevelt told Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau (the latter recorded it in his diary):

"We need to either castrate the entire German population or treat them in a way that they are no longer able to produce people who are able to continue to do the same things."

In 1940 and 1941, a journalist from the newspaper Jewish Chronicle TK Kaufman (a friend of one of the closest advisors Roosevelt, S. Rosman) two editions of the book " Germany must die!" In it, he proposed to divide the territory of Germany between five countries and to sterilize German men and women — 25 people per doctor[ru] per day; for 3 months, all the Germans had to be sterilized, and 60 years later the German nation was to disappear.

There were other proposals, in particular, to change the heredity and, accordingly, the identity of the Germans. So, at the very beginning of 1943, an anthropologist from Harvard, Professor Ernest Huton, proposed to change the inheritance of the Germans by forced metisation of German men and women. His scheme was simple: captured German soldiers and officers (10-12 million) are taken out of the country and placed in camps, and the remaining German Germans are forced to marry with soldiers of the occupation troops and with immigrants brought specially for this purpose.

In 1944, at the 2nd Quebec conference, Roosevelt, Churchill and Morgenthau discussed the plan proposed by the latter. According to the plan, Germany was to be subjected to forced agrarian, and its population was reduced to 25 million people, and a significant part of it was to be physically destroyed. Somehow the information about the Morgenthau plan leaked outwards, the Germans made a fuss and the Anglo-Americans had to officially abandon the plan.

Victory flag on the roof of the Reichstag

On the night of April 30, May 1, 1945, on the roof of the Reichstag in Berlin, Soviet scout soldiers of the 150th Kutuzov Order of the 2nd degree Idritskaya Rifle Division hoisted the Banner of Victory. The glory of the first standard-bearers was given to Mikhail Egorov and Meliton Kantaria. Punctured with bullets, blood-stained, the red banner became a sacred relic.

And in the Moscow newspaper Pravda on May 3, 1945, photographs of the burning Reichstag with the banner of the Victory over its dome were published. But in Berlin there were still battles, in the Reichstag itself were seized and fired by separate groups of fascists, and the pictures have already become historical.

The idea to hoist a red banner over the capital of defeated Germany was voiced by Stalin at a solemn meeting on November 6, 1944. This idea was also supported by the Military Council of the Army. According to the general opinion, the flag above the Reichstag symbolized the final collapse of Nazism. At the same time, on the model of the state flag of the USSR, nine banners were urgently manufactured - there were as many divisions as were part of the 3rd Shock Army.

Flag number 5, which became the Banner of Victory, was carried by a group of three fighters, led by Senior Sergeant Ivanov. Ivanov was mortally wounded by a breakthrough to the upper floors of the building. But Sergeant Yegorov and junior sergeant Kantaria, who were covered by their brother-soldiers, were able to hoist the banner. In the late evening of April 30, 1945, a red flag fluttered over the roof of the Reichstag, and after that two more were raised.
In June 1945, the main symbol of the Victory was taken to Moscow, and on June 22 he entered the museum. This is an ordinary assault flag, which initially was only an image of a sickle and a hammer. According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of April 15, 1996, the Victory Banner raised above the Reichstag in May 1945, along with the State Flag of the Russian Federation, is being carried out on Victory Day, laying wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, holding ceremonial meetings, parades of troops and processions of the Great Veterans The Patriotic War on Red Square in Moscow.

On November 4, 1972, the premiere of the two-part feature film "and the dawns are quiet here" based on the novel of the same name by Boris Vasiliev took place. The film became one of the leaders of the Soviet film distribution in 1973 — it was watched by about 66 million people. In 2002, according to the results of a sociological survey, it was recognized as the most popular picture of the great Patriotic war.

On July 2, 2020, Vladimir Putin[ru] signed a decree awarding the first 20 cities of Russia the honorary title "City of Labor Valor". The title is awarded for the significant contribution of city residents to achieving Victory in the Great Patriotic War.

Photo-movie about the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945


Songs dedicated to the war

"Farewell Slav" — march
Katyusha (M. Blanter - M. Isakovsky), App. T. Syniavska
Dark night, App. Ivan Kozlovsky
Victory Day, App. Joseph Kobzon
Bow to those great years, App. Joseph Kobzon
The national war — melody
Road to Berlin — Leonid Utyosov
Beats in close stove fire — Leonid Utyosov
Dark night — Utyosov
Guerrilla beard — L.O. Utyosov
The nameless heights — Mark Bernes
Dark night — Mark Naumovich Bernes
Want to whether the Russian war — Bernes
Cranes — M. N. Bernes
We need one win, App. Nina Urgant, music[ru] Alexandra Pakhmutova
Unknown soldier — Maya Kristalinskaya
Enemies have burnt native hut — Irina Muraveva

News bulletins, announcer Yuri Levitan
Started Great Patriotic War
Summary News October 30, 1942
Breaking the blockade of Leningrad January 18, 1943
Victory at Stalingrad February 2, 1943
On the release of Dnepropetrovsk
Moscow Fireworks Sevastopol
From the Soviet Information Bureau, March 15, 1945
On the capture of Berlin May 2, 1945
On the surrender of Germany
A minute of silence, remember

Electronic bank documents "Feat people in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945."

The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation presented a unique information resource open access, fills all available military archives documents about the course and outcome of major combat operations, deeds and rewards all the soldiers of the Great Patriotic War. The main objectives of the project are to perpetuate the memory of all the heroes of Victory, regardless of rank, scope feat status awards, military-patriotic education of youth on the example of the military exploits of the fathers, as well as the establishment of the factual basis for countering attempts to falsify the history of warfare. Creating the most complete electronic bank documents on the key period of the history of modern civilization is unique in terms of historical and social significance, and is an eternal monument to the great feat of the people.

Type the first name, surname, patronymic ancestor or relative, and get premium list with a description of his achievement. When searching look at the link "Advanced Search" - open additional fields to specify the kind of data that you are known.

Люди и награжденияAward DocumentsGeography of war
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