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 New year

New Year

New year (this article is in Russian - Новый год) - is the first day of the year, one of the main holidays of many Nations. In Europe, it begins on January 1 (in Russia[ru], the beginning of the year on January 1 was introduced by the first Russian Emperor Peter I[ru] in 1699). In countries[ru] where the lunar[horo] or luni-solar[horo] calendar is adopted, the New year falls on different dates of the solar year.

Our ancestors-the Slavs, as, in fact, most of the peoples of the time, were counting the years by season. The year all began on the first day of spring - March 1, when nature came to life and people began to take care of sowing a new crop.

Until the 10th century, the New year in Russia began on days close to the vernal equinox. At the end of the 10th century, Ancient Russia adopted Christianity (988-989), Byzantine chronology and the Julian calendar. The year was divided into 12 months and given names associated with natural phenomena. The beginning of the new chronology, until the end of the 14th century, and considered March 1.

After, as in X century on Russias was adopted Christianity, matter and another chronology-on the basis of Julian calendar (which contained in itself strict and a certain following months (wore Roman name) and prescribed semidnevnuyu week).

For centuries, March 1 was still the dawn of every coming year. This was the case until 1492. But, when John III approved by his decree the civil beginning-the onset of the new year moved to September 1. The celebration Of the new year on September 1 lasted until 1698.

In 1699, the festivities associated with the meeting of the New year were canceled, and only later Peter I issued a decree "on the reform of the calendar in Russia." From this decree it followed that the onset of the new year was timed to January 1.

Personally, Peter I fired the first rocket on the square, thereby heralding the onset of the holiday. Then gunfire erupted and the bells rang - thus began the era of the still - ongoing tradition of the primeval new year holiday.

New year is one of our favorite holidays with fluffy white snow outside the window, the smell of Christmas needles, sparkling colorful toys and tinsel, fireworks, gifts, as well as elegant Santa Claus and a charming snow Maiden. We wait a long time for him, and when the clock strikes midnight on December 31, we rejoice in the coming year, hoping for better times, and we are sad, seeing off the outgoing one.

Santa Claus - Chris Kelmy

When the first Christmas tree appeared in Russia, it is not known for sure. In the memoir literature there are mentions that the custom to put a Christmas tree on a holiday, was imported to Russia by the future wife of Nicholas I (1796-1855), the Prussian Princess Charlotte (Alexandra Feodorovna). According to other evidence, the first Christmas tree was put in the 40s of the 19th century by the Germans living in St. Petersburg. Living[ru] in a foreign land, they have not forgotten their traditions and habits, rites and rituals, and the first Christmas trees appeared in the homes of St. Petersburg Germans. On the eve of the feast of holiday's birth of Christ[ru] trees decorated with lanterns and toys, candy, fruit[ru] and nuts, were put only for children[ru]. Teenagers received books, clothes and silver. The girls were presented bouquets, shawls and albums. Over time, children began to give their parents gifts-things of their own making: needlework, crafts made of wood and other materials, drawings, poems.

Herringbone - Balagan Limited

After the Germans in the Russian houses of the St. Petersburg nobility also began to put Christmas trees for children. Forest beauties were decorated with wax candles and lanterns, flowers and ribbons, nuts, apples and sweets. Initially in a New year tree teetered one day, then these timeline all more lengthened: two days, three, until Christening or until the end of Yuletide.

The German tradition spread everywhere only in the mid-40s, when Christmas trees began to be sold before Christmas. They flashed their lights not only in the high-society salons, but also in the homes of poor officials.

Christmas trees were sold at Christmas markets: at Gostiny Dvor, where they were brought by peasants from the surrounding forests, on Petrovsky square, Vasilievsky island and other places. Already in the middle of the 19th century, the Christmas tree in the New year becomes commonplace for residents of St. Petersburg and begins to penetrate into the provincial and County cities, noble estates. By the end of the century, it is already firmly included in the life of the city and the owners of estates.

The first public Christmas tree, according to contemporaries, was installed in 1852 at the St. Petersburg Ekaterinhof station. Later, charity Christmas trees for poor children were organized by various societies and individual benefactors - many ladies from noble families gave money, sewed clothes for children, bought sweets and toys. The money raised for the tickets went to the benefit of the poor. Christmas trees were held in orphanages and people's homes. Alfred Nobel and his brother Ludwig - Swedish inventors and Industrialists who had their interests in Russia-annually arranged Christmas trees for the children of workers on the outskirts of the capital. In some noble houses, Christmas trees were held especially for servants with families.

If the magazine illustrations of the late 19th century elegant Christmas tree has firmly taken its place, then Santa Claus and snow Maiden under it yet, they have not yet become the heroes of the new year holiday. Santa Claus, as an old man in a fur coat, a shaggy hat, with white curls and a big gray beard, with a Christmas tree in his hand, a bag of toys behind his back, is present only in Yuletide stories.

New year celebrations on the occasion of entering the new, 20th century, Russia met traditionally, no one considered it a great anniversary. Only entrepreneurs used this date for commercial purposes. French champagne "New century" and "End of the century"appeared on the market. Moscow perfume factory, A. M., Ostroumova offered to customers under the name "New century" series: perfume, powder, soap and Cologne. In 1900 for the first time there was a magazine "New century", P.P. Soykin's publishing house pleased judges with the magnificent edition with cards and tables "at the turn of centuries", etc.

In Moscow, in the Manezh building, from 26 December to 7 January 1901 were celebrations. Huge paintings-dioramas depicting the most significant events of the passing century were staged, three orchestras played, the play "World review"was presented to the public. In the evening in the Arena solemnly passed on chariots the largest powers of the world: Russia, Germany, England, France. Everything sparkled and shimmered. On New year's eve, at 12 o'clock in the morning, prayers were held in all cathedrals and temples of the city. After the service, many citizens continued to celebrate in restaurants and clubs, at balls or dance evenings, in the Arena.

After the October revolution of 1917, the government of the country raised the question of reforming the calendar, since most European countries had long switched to the Gregorian calendar, adopted by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, and Russia still lived according to the Julian calendar.

On January 24, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars adopted a "Decree on the introduction of the Western European calendar in the Russian Republic". The document signed by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was published the next day and entered into force on February 1, 1918. In it, in particular, stated: "...the First day after January 31 this year is not considered the 1st of February, and February 14, the second day - to consider the 15th, etc. " Thus, Russian Christmas shifted from December 25 to January 7, shifted and new year's holiday.

Since 1925, Russia began a planned struggle with religion and, as a consequence, with Orthodox holidays. The final abolition of Christmas occurred in 1929. With it was canceled and the Christmas tree, which became known as "Popovsky" custom.

On September 16, 1857, John Pierpont of Boston obtained the copyright to the song "One Horse Open Sleigh", better known as"Jingle Bells". This Christmas Carol was written for a Sunday school performance and now no Christmas celebration is complete without it:

One Horse Open Sleigh — James Lord Pierpont

Persecution of the Soviet power

From 1917 to 1930, Santa Claus and snow maiden were "enemies of the people", and Christmas and Christmas tree were persecuted by the Soviet authorities:

Persecution of the Soviet power

However, in late 1935 in newspaper "Truth" emerged article Paul Petrovich Postysheva (1887-1940; Soviet, party figure, repressed) "let Us organize to new year children a good Christmas tree!". Society, which has not yet forgotten the beautiful and bright holiday, reacted quickly enough - Christmas trees and Christmas decorations appeared on sale. Pioneers and Komsomol members took over the organization and holding of Christmas trees in schools, orphanages and clubs. On December 31, 1935, the Christmas tree again entered the homes of our compatriots and became a holiday of "joyful and happy childhood in our country" - a wonderful new year holiday that continues to delight us today.

New year signs

The first twelve days of the new year, according to folk signs, predicted the weather for all twelve months. Especially knowledgeable people even paid attention to the mood of each day and noticed in which months you need to wait for good news, and in which — bad.

It was also believed that the longer the Christmas tree stays in the house, the better, and the New year should be met only in new clothes.

If you do not want to regularly replenish your wardrobe with new things, you can wear something simpler.

Preferably a couple of large bills, then next year you will not need anything. If you are in a dress without pockets, keep the money at least in your hand, especially during the battle of the chimes.

This new year's sign will never let you down! A gentle kiss, in the first minutes of the coming year, will help to strengthen your Union and add a good spark of passion to it.

Make sure that your holiday table was a lot of different dishes, and will thrive all next year. But if you realized that to fill the bellies of households enough two or three salads and hot, most of the cooked food is lost, and you do not intend to cook a lot, use a small mirror. Set it in front of the table so that it reflects all the dishes. The double effect will attract double the wealth to your family.

Before the onset of the first of January, remember all the best events of the outgoing year and sincerely thank the Universe for all the bad and good. She will hear and in return will fill your life with good luck.

After the battle of the chimes make a good noise: let firecrackers, shout "hurrah", or at least a little rattle the dishes. Such actions will scare away from your home all evil spirits and evil spirits.

If during the celebration of the New Year it came to the cake-the holiday failed!

This tradition has a thousand-year history and invented in China, in which poor citizens are forced, according to tradition, to listen throughout the first day of the New Year to the incessant explosions of firecrackers and fireworks. Like our compatriots in recent years...

It is believed that on New year's eve, expelled from various places, evil spirits are looking for a haven, so that throughout the next year to cause the owners of different troubles. So the noise when the New Year is able to ward off evil spirits from your doorstep!

The most unusual new year traditions

Each country has its own traditions of celebrating New year and Christmas. Some of them are so unusual that fascinate tourists from all continents.

In El Salvador, new year's eve is also guessing, but not on coffee grounds, but on the egg yolk. If you are lucky enough to be in this country on a holiday, at midnight break a raw egg in a glass and leave on the windowsill at night. In the morning you will be able to guess the resulting figure, what awaits you in the coming year.

Be creative!

More about the New year from another source

In the 14th century, our ancestors began to celebrate the new year according to the Orthodox Church calendar and celebrated its arrival on September 1 for almost 200 years. In Ancient Russia, it was the day of Simeon the pilot, or Semenov day, as it became known later. September 1 was going to rent, taxes, administered personal court. Tsar Ivan III ordered all Complainants to appear in Moscow on the judgment day on September 1, and Tsar Ivan IV on the day of Simeon Letovodets determined an urgent rent.

In the assumption and Annunciation cathedrals of the Moscow Kremlin were festive services-procession, reading of the gospel and the Apostle, consecration of water, washing of icons. The ceremony was attended by the Patriarch and the Tsar, invited boyars and voivodes, Duma nobles and clerks. Foreign ambassadors presented a variety of overseas gifts. Most often it was a watch[ru] - a rarity in Russia in those days. On the first day of the new year, distinguished subjects of the tsars were bestowed with ranks and awards, money and sable coats, gold and silver cups, poured into the crowd small money. Rich people gave alms to the shelters, or sent food - cakes, rolls, gingerbread, and clothes.

In the Royal chambers of the Moscow Kremlin, a festive feast was arranged, which, according to tradition, was opened by a roasted Swan cooked whole. Beef and pork, ducks and chickens, sturgeon and salmon were also served, as prescribed by Domostroy. Tongues, giblets of swans, herons, cranes and ducks, as well as "zayits frying, zayits in turnips, zayits brine" and other, no less delicious products, pleased with their diversity invited. Mandatory dishes on the table was the pudding, stewed fruit, pancakes, oatmeal, and jelly. Traditionally, a large variety of pies and pies were served, as well as pancakes, fritters, faggots and loaves. Among the most popular drinks were berry, ягодный juice, kvass and vodka infused with various herbs. Without an invitation to visit did not go - "uninvited guest worse than a Tatar," said the Russian proverb.

The new reform of the calendar fell on the reign of Peter I (1672-1725). On December 20, 1699 heralds, under a drum beat, declared to Muscovites the Imperial decree "About celebration of New year" in which, in particular, it was told: "...On big and passing streets to notable people and at houses deliberate spiritual and worldly rank before a gate to make some jewelry from trees and branches pine and mozzhevelovy, and to people poor though on a tree or a branch on a gate or under the temple to put". These ornaments were to be placed on the first day of January, but not indoors, but outside: on gates, streets and roads, on the roofs of taverns. All the townspeople were ordered to fire guns or shotguns (who had them), to launch rockets, at night to light fires of firewood or straw.

Peter's decree ordered to keep the chronology of the birth of Christ and the day of the new year, which was previously celebrated on September 1, to celebrate January 1 "by the example of all Christian peoples" who lived not according to the Julian but according to the Gregorian calendar. Peter I could not completely translate Russia to the new calendar, since the Church lived according to the Julian calendar, so he limited himself only to the transition to the January new year. It should be noted that the new chronology has long existed together with the old - in the decree of 1699 allowed to write in documents two dates - from the Creation of the world and from the birth of Christ.

In the Kremlin, on the occasion of the new year, were magnificent celebrations. After the prayer service in the assumption Cathedral, a parade of troops took place on Red square, which went with drumming, banners and music[ru]. Under the ringing of bells, cannon and rifle fire, "his Majesty with a pleasant caress congratulated everyone on the New year and mutually accepted congratulations from everyone." A "great table" was given for the nobles, which was attended not only by "Rennes wine" and other overseas curiosities. Still brewed and served: "beer order, intoxicating, March, egg, light", "Braga spicy", "kvass oat, egg", "honey order, with cloves, treacle, boiled, dried, with cardamom, raspberry, obarnoy". At the three triumphal arches built in Moscow, viands and vats of wine and beer were exhibited for the common people. In the evening, fireworks, funny lights, cannon shots sounded. A ball and supper were given at the Palace. Contemporaries of Peter I noted that during the new year celebrations in Moscow, the firing did not stop for a week.

After the death[ru] of Peter I, he created the tradition of meeting the new year preserved under the successors. In the" women's age " to parades and fireworks, glorifying military victories, musical evenings were added, balls became more colorful. At court masquerades, everyone had to be in "masquerade dresses: domins, Venetians, Capuchins...", for the main intrigue at the masquerade was not to be recognized. The ball opened with a minuet, an 18th-century etiquette symbol, a Polonaise or "Polish" dance. On the new year's table, in addition to traditional Russian drinks, appeared coffee, chocolate, lemonade, etc.

The estates the main part of the holiday was a feast. The first was served cold food: ham and pork, larded with garlic, followed by hot green soup, a bisque with the puff pastry pies and pate. Freshly salted sturgeon, peeled crayfish necks, salted quail, stuffed ducks and beckoned to taste them.

It should be noted, however, that Peter's instructions on the decoration of houses were preserved by this time only in the decoration of drinking establishments. Before the New year, Christmas trees tied to stakes were placed at the gates of taverns or on their roofs. They stood there until the next year and were a kind of "brand" sign drinking establishments. Sometimes instead of fir trees put young pines. This custom lasted through the 18th and 19th centuries.

And still Pro a New year from another source

The celebration of The new year among the ancient peoples usually coincided with the beginning of the revival of nature and was mainly timed to the month of March. The resolution to count the New year from the month of "Aviv" (ie ears), corresponding to our March and April is found in the law of Moses. From March it was considered a new year and the Romans, until the conversion of the calendar in 45 BC by Julius Caesar. The Romans on this day offered sacrifices to Janus and began with him major events, considering it an auspicious day.

On the same day, it was customary to give each other congratulations and gifts, especially to officials. At first they gave each other fruits covered with gilding, dates and wine berries, then copper coins and even valuable gifts (the latter was practiced only among rich people). The patricians enjoyed the pre-emptive right to be gifted. Each client had to give his patron a gift on New year's day. This custom became afterwards obligatory for all the inhabitants of Rome.

In France, the new age was considered until 755. From December 25, and then from March 1 in the XII and XIII centuries-from the day of Holy Easter, until finally it was established in 1654 by decree of king Charles IX, to count as the beginning of the year January 1. In Germany, the same thing happened in the second half of the 16th century, and in England in the 18th century. In Russia, since the introduction of Christianity, fulfilling the customs of their ancestors, also began the chronology or from March, or from the day of St. Easter.

In 1492 Grand Prince Ivan Vasilyevich Third finally approved the decree of the Moscow Cathedral is considered the beginning of both ecclesiastical and civil year to 1 September, when he was about tribute, taxes, and various dues, etc. To give the greatest solemnity this day the King himself had been to the Kremlin, where everyone, commoner or noble Lord in this time could approach him directly and seek his grace and truth. The prototype of the Church ceremony with which the celebration of the September new year was held in Russia was the celebration of it in Byzantium, established by Constantine the Great.

One of foreign contemporaries so describes seen them in Russia in 1636 year solemn spectacle meeting a New year: "On Palace yard gathered more 20 thousands of man old and small. From the Church, standing on the right side at the entrance to the square (we are talking about the assumption Cathedral), came the Patriarch with his clergy of 400 priests. All in Church vestments with many images and with old books unfolded. His Majesty, with their state dignitaries, nobles and princes, was on the left side of the square. The Grand Duke, bareheaded, and the Patriarch, in the Bishop's mitre, went out alone, approached each other, and kissed each other on the lips. The Patriarch also gave The Grand Duke to kiss the cross...

Then, in a long speech, he blessed His Royal Majesty and all the people and wished them all happiness for the New year. The Patriarch said: "Give, Lord! You, the King, the Emperor and Great Duke of all Russia Autocrat, he was fine[en] with his Empress, the Queen and Grand Duchess, and ours the great Empress, and with their gosudarevy noble children, from princes and Queens, with their sovereign's faithful, the most Reverend metropolitans and archbishops, and bishops, and archimandrites, and yumni, and all the sacred Cathedral, and the boyars, and Christ-loving army, and well-wishers, and all Orthodox christiany, Hello, king of the Emperor, this year to continue running a summer to generation and forever." The people in confirmation of Patriarchal new year wishes loudly shouted: "Amen". The raw, the wretched, the defenseless, and the persecuted were there in the crowd with upraised petitions, which they wept and sobbed at the feet of the Grand Duke, asking his mercy, protection, and intercession. Petitions were referred to the Royal apartments.

snowman

The last time the New year was celebrated on September 1, 1698, was held merrily and in a feast, arranged with Royal pomp voivode Shein, who gathered an incredible number of boyars, civil and military officials, as well as a large number of sailors. The King himself came up to them, gave them apples, calling each of them a brother. Each zazdravny Cup was accompanied by a shot from 25 guns.

Tsar Peter the Great, appearing in the assumption Cathedral, accompanied by his infant son Alexei and his Wife Queen Eudoxia, dressed already in the German way, like the others present, with the exception of the Dowager Queen Praskovya Feodorovna, himself congratulated the people on the New year. The guards wore blue uniforms with red cuffs and high boots. "For the sake of harmony with the peoples of Europe in contracts and treatises," Peter the Great radically changed the chronology and the method of celebrating the New year. In the first year 18 century he already ordered to wage chronology from birth Christ, abolishing chronology from days creation world.

Not wishing to completely banish the custom of celebrating the New year, he established it according to customs he had borrowed from Holland and other countries of Western Europe. In justification of his undertakings, the Tsar cited the simple and obvious grounds that "not only in many European and Christian countries

, but also in the Slavic peoples, who agree with our Eastern Church in everything, like the Wallachians, Moldavians, Serbs, Dalmatians and his Greatest Sovereign's subjects Cherkassy (ie. little Russians), and all the Greeks, from which our Orthodox faith is adopted, according to count their years from the birth of Christ eight days later, i.e., January 1 number, not the creation of the world, in many a strife notation in those years".

A well-known associate of the reign of the Great Sovereign, Archbishop of Novgorod and Velikiye Luki, Russian Chrysostom, Feofan Prokopovich, to explain this change, asked "Sexton and apostates", dissatisfied with this "destruction of the years of God": "what is more decent and honest? Do we celebrate the new year in memory of the tributes and taxes imposed by Constantine, or when we celebrate the coming of the Son of God in the world, we are freed From eternal debts and from the bonds of indecisive ones?"Further, briefly, with great scholarly authority, he explained:

"From the beginning of the Church of Christ, neither pastors nor other Christians in their Epistles and acts wrote the number of years either from the creation of the world or from the birth of Jesus Christ, but the names of the present (modern) Roman consuls meant time. Only in the sixth century in the Roman Church began to mean the time of the birth of Christ, and in the Greek for fifteen hundred years did not mean and recently signified have become, and then not yet universal custom. What do you say now, blind chronologists? What dream of the summer of God? And who and where neprestano oznaciti aforesaid legalized? And who and when the new year was tied to September? It was tied, we know, but not by a strong Union. Strong as other custom and razreshite Union that, how much more of the same so strong is the Royal Charter".

Such a change was painful in the minds and hearts of the old school, but, confining itself to the dull murmur of the ignorant, this innovation was instilled without any troubles, square fights and street bloodshed, causing only from time to time abusive writings "zealots drevlyago piety" the Implementation of this reform of the Great King, which was so important, began with the fact that it was forbidden to celebrate in any way on September 1, and on December 15, 1699, the drumbeat announced something important to the people, who poured into the Red square in droves. Here the high platform on which the Imperial deacon loudly read the decree that the Great Sovereign Pyotr Alekseevich ordered "from now on to number in orders and in all Affairs and fortresses to write from 1 genvar from Christ's birth"was arranged. In a badge of moreover bountiful beginnings and a new centenary century, "after thanksgiving God and molebnogo sing in Church" povedeno was: "on large proezzhimym streets, and noble people and have homes deliberate (eminent) spiritual and worldly rank, before gateway do some beautification from trees and branches pine spruce and juniper. And people poor (ie. poor) although the tree or branch over the gate or over heromine their supply. And that it is ripe for the future of January to 1st among 1700 this year. And to stand that decoration of genvar on the 7th of the same year. Yes genvarya OK in 1 th day, in a badge of veseliya, each other pozdravlyati with New Year and centennial century, and to commit this, when on Big red Tiananmen fiery fun begin, and shootings will, and on noble homes boyarskim and okolnichim, and dumnym noble people, palatnogo, military and kupechesky rank famous people koemuzhdo on his yard from small cannons, from whom there is, or from petty rifle to commit three times shooting and issue several missiles as many as anyone will happen. And on the streets large, where decently, genvarya with 1 th number of on 7's number of at night fires of ignite from firewood, or from faggots, or from straw. And where small yards, having gathered on five or six yards, tako fire klast, or who wants, on columns on one or on two or on three pitch and thin barrels, filling with solomoju or faggots, to light, and before burgomasterskoju a town hall to shooting and such ornaments at their discretion to be same".

The Tsar himself was the first to launch a rocket, which, writhing like a fiery snake in the air, announced to the people the advent of the New year, and after it, according to the Royal decree, the fun began throughout the white Stone...

New year signs

New year signs

With the New year involves a lot of interesting customs and take. For example, almost all the peoples of Europe, Asia, Indochina there is a custom to throw a coin under the New year in the basement of his house. It is a tribute to the spirits who protect the dwelling.

In the English villages are trying for the New year "to skim the cream from the well" — the first of the year to collect water.

They say that happiness depends on who will be the first to come to your house in the New year. If are a good and the rich-wait for luck. And boring, angry and poor - to trouble.

It would seem that what could be worse than an uninvited guest? And here is in Scottish villages under New year such a guest are happy. But not any, but definitely a black-eyed brunette, and even with dark skin[ru]. Then the owners of the house will smile fate. And if the guest turns out to be also tall, beautiful, bursting with health[ru] - very good!

In a word, what a guest-such is the year. And the guest should certainly give the hosts a gift. No matter what, even a piece of coal, but from the heart[ru] and with the words: "may there always be fire in your hearth."

From the movie "New Year's Eve":

This is the meaning of the New year — to get another chance, a chance to forgive. To do better, to do more, to give more, to love more and not to worry about what would have been, but to perceive life as it is.

Songs about New year

Julia Savicheva — New year
Nyusha — It's New Year
New Year — Alexander Malinin
Christmas toys
In the Christmas forest, muses A. Varlamov, et seq. E. Shklovsky
Tutsi — 100 candles
Love story — New-year
Jolka — New Year
Walking through the woods Santa Claus
Christmas toys (slow)
Sofia Rotaru — In love[en] New year
Children's choir "Giant" — New year
Nomo — On new year

Santa Claus and Snowman

 

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