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Announce a character, and recommended himself.
F. M. Dostoevsky. "The Brothers Karamazov"

Character (this article is in Russian - Характер) (the term comes from (from the ancient Greek — χαρακτήρ — "sign, distinctive feature, sign, seal, coinage")) is a structure of persistent, relatively permanent mental properties that determine the characteristics of relationships and behavior of the individual. Individual warehouse of a person's personality, manifested in the features of behavior and attitude (attitudes) to the surrounding reality.

Installation is a state of predisposition of the subject to a certain activity in a certain situation. The phenomenon was discovered by the German psychologist Ludwig Lange (1888). The General psychological theory of installation on the basis of numerous experimental studies was developed by the Georgian psychologist and philosopher Dmitry Nikolaevich Uznadze and his school. Along with the unconscious simplest attitudes, there are more complex social attitudes, value orientations of the individual, and so on.

When we talk about character, we usually mean by this a set of properties and qualities of the individual, which impose a certain seal on all its manifestations and actions. Character traits are those essential properties of a person that determine a particular way of behavior, way of life[ru].

The study of characters is engaged in the science[ru] of characterology. The branch of psychology that deals with the study of differences between characters is called differential psychology.

General concept of character and its manifestations

In psychology, the concept of character means a set of stable individual characteristics of the individual, developing and manifesting in the activity and communication, causing typical ways of behavior.

When define a person's character, we speak not about the fact that this man showed courage, truthfulness, frankness, and that this man is brave, truthful, Frank, that is called quality — properties of the person, his character traits, which may manifest in appropriate circumstances. Knowledge of the character of a person allows you to anticipate with a significant degree of probability and thus correct the expected actions and actions. It is not uncommon to say of a man of character: "He should have done so, he could not have done otherwise — such is his character."

However, not all human features can be considered characteristic, but only essential and stable ones. If a person, for example, is not polite enough in a stressful situation, it does not mean that rudeness and intemperance are properties of his character. Sometimes even very cheerful people may feel sad, but this will not make them whiny and pessimistic.

Acting as a lifetime education of a person, the character is defined and formed throughout his life. The way of life includes the way of thoughts, feelings, motives, actions in their unity. Therefore, as a certain way of life of a person is formed, the person himself is formed. An important role is played by social conditions and specific life circumstances in which the life path of a person passes on the basis of his natural properties and as a result of his actions and actions. However, the formation of character occurs directly in various groups (family, friendly company, class, sports team, work team, and others).

Depending on which group is a reference for the individual and what values it supports and cultivates in its environment, the corresponding character traits will develop in its members. Character traits will also depend on the individual's position in the group, on how he integrates into it. In the collective as a group of high level of development, the most favorable opportunities for the formation of the best character traits are created. This process is mutual: thanks to the development of the individual, the collective itself develops.

The content of the character, reflecting social influences, influences, is the life direction of the person, i.e. its material and spiritual needs, interests, beliefs, ideals, etc. the Direction of the person determines the goals, the life plan of the person, the degree of his life activity. The character of a person assumes the presence of something significant for him in the world, in life, which determines the motives of his actions, the goals of his actions, the tasks that he sets himself.

Crucial for understanding character is the relationship between socially and personally significant for a person. Each society has its own important and essential tasks. It is on them that the character of people is formed and tested. Therefore, the concept of "character" refers more to the relation of these objectively existing problems. Therefore, character is not just any manifestation of firmness, perseverance, and the like (formal perseverance may be just stubbornness), but a focus on socially significant activities. It is the direction of the personality that underlies unity, integrity, strength of character.

Possession of the goals of life-the main condition for the formation of character. A characterless person is characterized by the absence or dispersion of goals. However, the character and direction of the individual is not the same. Good-natured and cheerful can be both a decent, highly moral person, and a person with low, unscrupulous thoughts. The orientation of the personality leaves an imprint on all human behavior. And although behavior is determined not by a single impulse, but by a whole system of relationships, in this system something always comes to the fore, dominating it, giving the character of a person a peculiar flavor.

In the formed character, the leading component is the belief system. Conviction determines the long-term direction of a person's behavior, his inflexibility in achieving goals, confidence in the justice and importance of the work that he performs. Character traits are closely related to human interests, provided that these interests are stable and deep. Superficiality and instability of interests are often associated with a great imitation, with a lack of independence and integrity of the person. Conversely, the depth and content of interests indicate the purposefulness and perseverance of the individual. The similarity of interests does not imply the same characteristics of the character. So, among the rationalizers can be found people happy and sad, modest and obsessive, egoists and altruists.

The affections and interests of a person connected with his leisure may also be indicative of the understanding of character. They reveal new features, facets of character: for example, the Russian writer Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy was fond of playing chess, the scientist and physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov[ru] — playing in the towns; chemist, metrologist, economist, physicist, physicist, technologist, geologist, meteorologist, teacher, teacher, oilman, balloonist, instrument maker Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev reading[ru] adventure novels. Whether a person's spiritual or material needs and interests dominate, they determine not only the thoughts and feelings of the individual, but also the direction of his activities. No less important is the correspondence of a person's actions to the set goals, since the personality is characterized not only by what it does, but also by how it does it. Character can only be understood as a certain unity of direction and mode of action.

People with a similar orientation can go completely different ways to achieve goals and using their own, special, techniques and methods. This dissimilarity also determines the specific character of the individual. Character traits, having a certain motivating force, are clearly manifested in the situation of choosing actions or ways of behavior. From this point of view, as a character trait, we can consider the degree of expression of the individual's motivation to achieve-his need to achieve success. Depending on this, some people are characterized by the choice of actions that ensure success (showing initiative, competitive activity, risk-taking, etc.), while others are more characterized by the desire to simply avoid failure (deviation from risk and responsibility, avoiding the manifestation of activity, initiative, etc.).

Character accentuation — more pronounced development of individual character traits to the detriment of others, resulting in worse interaction with other people. The intensity of accentuation can be different — from light, visible only to the immediate environment, to extreme options, when you have to think about whether there is a disease[ru] — psychopathy.

Psychopathy — a painful[ru] ugliness of character (while maintaining the human intellect), disharmonious personality warehouse, as a result of which relationships with other people are sharply disrupted. Psychopaths can even be socially dangerous to others.

In contrast to psychopathy, character accentuations are not constant, and over the years they can significantly smooth out and approach the norm.

There are variations in the nature of human reactions to the environment: there are people with more or less pronounced egoism or altruism, more or less ambitious, more or less capable of compassion, more or less fulfilled sense of duty, and so on. This means that in the sphere of aspirations and inclinations on the basis of such variations arise human individuality — people differ from each other, but are not yet accentuated personalities.

Accentuated character traits are not as numerous as variant traits. These are the same traits, but they tend to go into pathology. It is believed that such features exist in the average person, but with a slight degree remain invisible to others. If they reach a certain strength, they leave their mark on the personality; if they are even more pronounced, they are reflected as a hindrance in the entire personality warehouse. Thus, character accentuations are extreme variants of the norm, in which individual character traits reveal selective vulnerability to a certain kind of psychogenic effects with good and even increased resistance to others.

Accentuated individuals are characterized by a readiness for special (both socially positive and socially negative) development. If some of them appear to us in a negative light, it is because external circumstances were unfavorable to their character, although in other circumstances they might have developed into people capable of remarkable actions.

The rigid rules under which it would be possible to diagnose accentuated personality traits do not exist. The types of character accentuations are very similar and partially coincide with the types of psychopathies. The three main defining criteria are totality, relative stability of character, and social maladjustment.

The doctrine of character accentuations appeared in the XIX century (in the Russian[ru] neurologist, psychiatrist, physiologist, psychologist, founder of the scientific school - Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev). The most famous was the term "accentuated personality" (in the German psychiatrist Carl Leonhard, in 1968), but it is more correct to talk about "accentuations of character" (in the psychiatrist Andrei E. Lichko, 1977). Personality is a much more complex concept than character. It includes intelligence, abilities, inclinations, worldview, and so on. in the descriptions of K. Leonhard we are talking about the types of character. In addition, in countries[ru] with the German language, the term "accentuated personality" began to be used as a clinical diagnosis instead of the term "psychopathy", which is legitimate if we consider accentuations as extreme versions of the norm.

The types of character accentuations are very similar and partially coincide with the types of psychopathies. The difference between accentuation and psychopathy is that in psychopathies decompensation, acute affective and psychopathic reactions, social maladaptation arise from any mental trauma, from all sorts of reasons, and even without a visible reason. With accentuations, violations occur only when a certain kind of mental trauma, in some difficult situations, namely, only when they are addressed to the "place of least resistance", to the "weak link" of this type of character.

Usually accentuations develop in the period of character formation and smooth out with growing up. Character traits in accentuations may not appear constantly, but only in certain situations, in a certain situation, and almost not be detected in normal conditions.

Consider some of the types of psychopathy and accentuations of character:

Hysteroid type. His main feature — boundless egocentrism, insatiable thirst for constant attention to his person-admiration, surprise, reverence, sympathy. At the worst, even resentment or hatred directed at him is preferred, but not indifference — only not the prospect of remaining unnoticed. All other qualities of the hysteroid feed on this trait. Suggestibility, which is often brought to the fore, is selective: there is nothing left of it if suggestion does not pour water on the mill of egocentrism. Seeming emotionality in reality turns into a lack of deep sincere feelings with a large expression of emotions, theatricality, a tendency to draw and posturing.

Psychasthenic type. The main features in adolescence are indecision and a tendency to reason, anxious suspiciousness and love[ru] to introspection and, finally, the ease of formation of obsessions (the term comes from the Latin word "obsessio" — siege, covering) - obsessive fears, fears, actions, rituals, thoughts, ideas.

Asthenic type. The main features are increased fatigue, irritability and a tendency to hypochondria.

Sensitive type. Since childhood[ru] shows timidity and fearfulness. Difficulties of adaptation most often arise in 16-19 years. It is at this age that the two main qualities of the sensitive type appear: extreme impressionability and a pronounced sense of self-insufficiency.

Labile type. The main feature is the extreme variability of mood. Mood is characterized not only by frequent and abrupt changes, but also by their significant depth.

Unstable type. When the names "labile" and "unstable" are similar, it should be pointed out that the first refers to the emotional sphere, and the second — to behavior. The lack of will of representatives of this type clearly appears when it comes to study, work, performance of duties and duty, achieving the goals set for them by their relatives, elders, and society. However, in the search for entertainment, they also do not find assertiveness, but rather go with the flow.

Cycloid type. In adolescence, two variants of cycloid accentuation can be seen: typical and labile cycloids. A typical cycloid in childhood are no different from their peers, or more often give the impression of hypertime. With the onset of puberty, the first subdepressive phase occurs. It is characterized by a tendency to apathy and irritability. Serious failures and complaints of others can deepen the subdepressive state or cause an acute affective reaction with suicidal attempts. In typical cycloids, the phases are usually short and last two to three weeks. In labile cycloids, the phases are much shorter — a few " good "days are replaced by a few" bad " ones.

Hyperthymic type. It is characterized by increased mental activity, optimism, cheerfulness. Giperammoniemiei option psihopatizatsii is the most common. Here the desire for entertainment, fun, risky adventures increasingly comes to the fore and pushes for neglect of employment and work, alcoholism and drug use, sexual excesses and delinquency — in the end it can lead to an asocial lifestyle.

Hyperthymic-hysteroid variant is much less common. Against the background of hyperthymia, hysteroid features gradually emerge. When faced with life's difficulties, with failures, in desperate situations and with the threat of serious punishment, there is a desire to pity others (up to demonstrative suicidal actions) and make an impression with their originality, brag, " throw dust in the eyes[ru]".

Hypertime-affective option psihopatizatsii differs stronger affective traits explosiveness. Outbursts of irritation and anger, often characteristic of hyperthymes, when they meet opposition or fail, here become especially violent and occur at the slightest provocation.

Schizoid type. The most significant feature of this type is considered to be isolation, isolation from the environment, inability or unwillingness to establish contacts, reducing the need for communication.

Epileptoid type. The main features of this type are a tendency to dysphoria and a closely related affective explosive, a tense state of the affective sphere, sometimes reaching an anomaly of drives, as well as viscosity, stiffness, heaviness, inertia, which leave an imprint on the entire psyche-from motor skills and emotionality to thinking and personal values. Dysphoria, which last for hours and days, are distinguished by an evil-melancholy color of mood, boiling irritation, the search for an object on which to thwart evil. The affective discharges of the epileptoid only seem sudden at first glance. The reason for the explosion may be accidental, play the role of the last drop. Affects are not only very strong, but also long-lasting-the epileptoid can not cool down for a long time.

Conformal type. These individuals are characterized by distrust and wary attitude to strangers. As you know, in modern social psychology, conformity is usually understood as subordination of the individual to the opinion of the group, as opposed to independence and independence. Under different conditions, each subject reveals a certain degree of conformity. However, with conformal accentuation of character, this property is constantly revealed, being the most stable feature.

There are two main groups of dynamic changes in character accentuations: transient, transient changes (in fact, they are the same in form as in psychopathies); relatively persistent changes. The latter can be of several types.

The doctrine of character-characterology — has a long history of development. The most important problems of characterology for centuries has been the establishment of character types and their definition by its manifestations in order to predict human behavior in various situations. Since character is a lifetime formation of personality, most of its existing classifications are based on the grounds that are external, mediated factors of personality development.

One of the most ancient attempts to predict human behavior is to explain his character by the date of birth[ru]. Various ways of predicting the fate and character of a person were called horoscopes.

No less popular are attempts to link the character of a person with his name.

A significant influence on the development of characterology had physiognomy (the term comes from the Greek "phusis" — nature, and "gnomon" — knowing) — the doctrine of the relationship between the appearance of a person and his belonging to a certain type of personality, so that the external signs can be established psychological characteristics of this type.

Palmistry has no less famous and rich history than the physiognomic direction in Palmistry. Palmistry (the term comes from the Greek "cheir" — hand and" manteia " — divination[ru], prophecy) — a system of prediction of human character traits and their fate on the skin relief of the palms.

Until recently, scientific psychology has consistently rejected palmistry, but the study of embryonic development of finger patterns in connection with heredity gave rise to a new branch of knowledge-dermatoglyphics.

More valuable in diagnostic terms compared with physiognomy can be considered graphology — the science that considers handwriting as a kind of expressive movements that reflect the psychological properties of the writer.

At the same time, the unity and versatility of character do not exclude the fact that in different situations the same person shows different and even opposite properties. A person can be both very gentle and very demanding, soft and compliant and at the same time firm to the point of inflexibility. And the unity of his character can not only be preserved in spite of this, but it is in this that it is manifested.

Formation of character and ways of its education

Formation of character

As it was said earlier, the character is formed, develops and changes in the practical activity of a person, reflects the conditions and way of life. Character formation begins from early childhood.

Already in preschool age the first contours of character are outlined, the habitual image of behavior, certain relations to reality begins to develop. Manifestations of collectivism, perseverance, endurance, courage in preschool age are formed primarily in the game, especially in collective plot games with rules.

Of great importance are the simplest types of work available to preschool children. Performing some simple duties, the child learns to respect and love work, to feel responsible for the assigned task. Under the influence of the demands of parents and educators, their personal example, the child gradually develops concepts of what can and can not be, and this begins to determine his behavior, lays the foundations of a sense of duty, discipline, endurance; the child learns to assess their own behavior.

With admission to the school begins a new stage in the formation of character. For the first time, the child is faced with a number of strict rules and school responsibilities that determine all his behavior at school, at home, in public places. These rules and duties develop the student's organization, systematicity, purposefulness, perseverance, accuracy, discipline, hard work.

The school team plays an extremely important role in the formation of character. At school, the child enters into a new relationship with his teachers, in the relationship of community and mutual assistance with friends. He develops a sense of duty and responsibility to the collective of his class, school, a sense of camaraderie, collectivism. Especially intensively develop character traits in adolescents. A teenager is much more involved in adult life than a Junior schoolboy, and higher demands are placed on him. The teenager in the educational and public activity already much more begins to be guided by motives of a public order — sense of a duty and responsibility before collective, desire to support honor of school, a class. Education has a decisive influence on the character of the child. There are no children whose character can not be re-educated and who can not be instilled certain positive qualities, even removing the seemingly already ingrained negative traits in them.

A necessary condition for character education is the formation of a worldview, beliefs and ideals. The worldview determines the direction of a person, his life goals, aspirations, from the worldview follow the moral attitudes that people are guided in their actions. The task of forming a worldview, beliefs should be solved in unity with the education of certain forms of behavior, which could embody the system of human relations to reality. Therefore, for the education of socially valuable character traits, it is necessary to organize the child's play, educational, and work activities in such a way that he could accumulate experience of correct behavior.

In the process of character formation, it is necessary to fix not only a certain form of behavior, but also the corresponding motive for this behavior, to put children in such conditions that their practical activities correspond to their ideological education, so that they apply in practice the acquired principles of behavior. If the conditions in which the child lived and acted did not require him, for example, to show restraint or initiative, then the corresponding traits of character will not be developed in him, no matter what high moral ideas are instilled in him verbally. You can't raise a manly man unless you put him in a situation where he could and should have shown courage. Education that eliminates all the difficulties in the life of a child can never create a strong character.

The most important means of character education is work. In serious and socially significant work associated with overcoming difficulties, the best character traits are brought up-purposefulness, collectivism, perseverance. The most important condition for the correct organization of educational activities is the close coordination of the educational work of the school with the corresponding influences of the family.

Character education is influenced by literature and art. Images of literary characters and their behavior often serve as a kind of model for the schoolboy, with which he compares his behavior. Character education is also influenced by the personal example of the educator, whether parents or teachers. What caregivers do often has a much greater impact on a child's life than what they tell them. How the teacher treats the work, how he follows the social norms of behavior, whether he owns himself and his feelings, what is the style of his work-all this is of great importance for the education of children's character. An important role in the formation of character is played by the living word of the teacher, the educator, with which he addresses the child. A significant place is occupied, in particular, by ethical and moral conversations. Their goal is to form correct moral ideas and concepts in children.

For older students, one of the ways of character formation is self — education. However, even in younger students, the teacher should cultivate the desire to get rid of certain shortcomings, undesirable habits, and develop useful habits.

Especially important is the need for an individual approach to character education. Individual approach requires the selection and implementation of such educational activities that would correspond to the characteristics of the student's personality and the state in which he is currently located. It is absolutely necessary to take into account the motives of actions, since differences in motives determine the differences in educational activities that must be carried out by the teacher in response to a particular act of the student. Individual approach requires reliance on the positive that each child already has in the field of his interests, relationships to people, to individual activities, etc.

By fully developing existing valuable traits and encouraging positive actions, the teacher can more easily overcome negative character traits in children. In order to bring up the character of the student taking into account his individual characteristics, it is necessary to know them well, that is, comprehensively and deeply study the individuality of the student. Studying a child is a relatively long process. Only a good knowledge of the student will allow you to plan individual measures for his further education or re-education and will lead to the desired results. When meeting students for the first time at the very beginning of the first year of study, the teacher should carefully observe them, talk to parents about the conditions and some features of the child's development, about the manifestations of his character. On the basis of observations and conversations, it is necessary to draw up a certain program for the formation of the child's character, taking into account his individual characteristics.

For the understanding of social processes, the key is the concept of social character in the dynamic sense of analytical psychology — it is a specific form of human energy, its needs for a certain way of existence of a given society. Character determines an individual's thinking, emotions, and actions. We are usually convinced that thinking is an exclusively intellectual act and does not depend on the mental structure of the individual. However, the understanding of ethical, philosophical, political, psychological, or social problems is highly influenced by the mental structure of the thinking person.

If you look at social character from the standpoint of its function in the social process, we must start with the provisions made in respect of the functions of individual character, i.e. the claim that adapting to social conditions man develops those traits that make him wish to act as he should act. If the nature of the majority of people in a certain society, i.e. social character, adapted to the objective tasks that the individual must solve in this society, then human energy is directed along the paths in which it becomes a productive force necessary for the functioning of this society. Character traits are developed through socialization in the process of a particular activity through the system of education, upbringing and self-actualization.

Socialization is a personal development, appropriation of the environment in which a person develops.

Education — purposeful creation of conditions for creation, self-development of the person.

Self — actualization-the desire of a person in their development to most fully identify and develop their personal capabilities, talents, abilities.

A person is born — grows and changes his body. The experience of its co-existence is also growing, and life impressions are enriched. Its potencies are revealed, its moral, intellectual, and social activity is realized. The question of socialization can be associated with the practical activities of a person based on the influence of various activities on a person, his behavior, character. (Psychology: textbook for bachelors / Vadim Petrovich stupnitsky, Olga Ivanovna Shcherbakova, Viktor Evdokimovich Stepanov. — Moscow: Publishing and trading Corporation " Dashkov and Co.", 2013. — 520 p. SBN 978-5-394-02063-6)

How do psychologists work

Ancient thinkers believed that in order to make a discovery, enough conclusions based on reflection. It is known that Aristotle was firmly convinced that women have fewer teeth than men. But he never bothered to check it. However, scientists gradually came to the conclusion that without research it is impossible to draw conclusions about what the psyche is and what its mechanisms are. Gradually, a whole system of scientific research methods developed.

The phenomena of psychology are so complex and peculiar, so difficult to study, that throughout the history of this science, its success directly depended on the perfection of the applied methods of research. Now psychology uses the methods of philosophy and sociology, mathematics and physics, computer science and Cybernetics, physiology and medicine, biology and history, and a number of other Sciences. Psychologists also use methods of questioning, testing, conduct special experiments.

And despite the fact that technical devices and methods of mathematical processing of results are actively used in psychological research, traditional methods of collecting information about psychological phenomena have not lost their value. Observation and self-observation make it possible to catch much of what is practically inaccessible to instruments and can not be described with the help of precise mathematical formulas. With the help of self-observation, the researcher receives information about feelings, emotional experiences, images, representations, thoughts. By comparing the results of self-observation, observation of other people and readings, the psychologist can make accurate conclusions.

At the end of the XX century, people who have any psychological problems, turn to a psychologist, and he helps to find a way out of a difficult situation. But even in ancient times, people often had similar psychological problems. Witches, healers, and healers helped solve these problems. And they helped just as well as modern psychologists.

That's what tells about a psychological assistance to Russian folk tale "Negovorya water".

Tale "Negovorya water

Tale Negovorya water

"Once upon a time there was a husband and wife. When they were young, they lived on all the charm, and in old age — as if someone had replaced them. As soon as the old man gets his feet off the stove in the morning, an altercation begins between him and the old woman. He the old woman the word, and she gives him two, her two, and she gives him five, he's five, and she ten. And such a whirlwind will curl between them, even if you run away from them. And they will begin to understand — there is no one to blame.

— Why should we, old woman, eh? "the old man will say.

— Yes all you, the old, you all!

— "Oh, come on! Am I? Aren't you? With a long tongue!

— "Not me, but you!

— "You, not me!

And again: again the quarrel between them started. Here is times listened to their neighbor and says:

Karamanutsa, what's with the old-that all the trouble yeah trouble? Went would you on the edge of the village to bobalki. Mobilka the water whispers... It helps people, maybe it will help you.

"But really, thought the old woman — go to bobalki...".

Came to mobilke, knocked on the window. She came out.

— "What," asked the girl, do you want?

— Yes, — says the grandmother, - we went wrong with the old man.

— But wait, says mobilka a little bit.

And into the house.

She brought the old woman water in a wooden bucket and whispered to the water in front of her. Then she poured it into a glass bowl, serves it and says:

— As soon as you get home, and as the old man makes a noise, you drink some water; but don't spit, don't swallow, but keep it in your mouth until it calms down."... All right and will be!

The old woman bowed to mobilke, took the pot of water home. And only a foot for a threshold brought, as the old man on it and attacked:

— Oh, I like these women-dragonflies! As will go, so as if will fail! Once upon a time it's time to put the samovar, and you forgot to think! Where did you get that?"

The old woman took a SIP from a glass bowl, but did not spit, did not swallow, but, as bobylka ordered, kept it in her mouth.

And the old man sees that she does not answer, and he himself was silent. Happy woman "And indeed, you see, the water of this nagavara healing!"

Put a pot with water, and the samovar and saremi pipe.

The old man heard it:

"Eka is clumsy-wrong! The wrong end of the hand, apparently, stuck!

And the old woman wanted him to answer, remembered the orders of bobalki and again for the water! She took a SIP and held it in her mouth.

The old man sees that the old woman does not say a word to him contrary, was given a diva and... shut up.

And everything went between them from that time on as if written: again, as in young years, people on a sight for sore eyes. Because as soon as you begin to quiet the old man, old woman now — for nagourney water!

Here it is, the power in it what!" (Elena Selezneva. Children's encyclopedia "I know the world". - Moscow: AST: Astrel, 2005. — 395 [5] p.: Il. ISBN 5-17-032329-8)

Famous quotes about character and psychology

Famous psychologists

Sigmund Freud (full name Sigismund Shlomo Freud (6 may 1856, Freiberg, Austrian Empire (now-Przybor, Czech Republic) — 23 September 1939, London, UK[ru]) was an Austrian doctor[ru]-psychiatrist, neurologist and psychologist, the founder of psychoanalysis.

Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (January 20 (February 1, new style) 1857, village Sorali, Elabuga district, Vyatka province — December 24, 1927, Moscow) — Russian neurologist, psychiatrist, physiologist, psychologist, founder of the scientific school. Fundamental works on anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Research on the therapeutic use of hypnosis, including alcoholism. Works on sex education, early childhood behavior, social psychology. He studied personality on the basis of a comprehensive study of the brain by physiological, anatomical and psychological methods. Founder of reflexology. Organizer and head of the Psychoneurological Institute (1908; now im. Bekhterev) and the Institute for the study of the brain and mental activity (1918). Established Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin's paranoia, which cost the scientist his life.

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875, Kesswil — 6 June 1961, kussnacht) — was a Swiss psychologist and philosopher, the founder of "analytical psychology". Scientific field: psychiatry, psychology, analytical psychology, psychotherapy.

Boris Yuryevich Khigir (real patronymic Yuzikovich) (born in 1942 in Uzbekistan) — doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor, academician of Informatization under the auspices of the UN. He is the author of more than forty books on the connection of a person's name, his psychological portrait and fate, and is an academician of the Russian Academy of security, defense and law enforcement. He has been studying the influence of the name, patronymic and month of birth on the character and fate of a person for more than three decades.

Larisa Vladislavovna Bogdanova (pseudonym of Larisa Renar) (b. December 9, 1966 in Krasnoyarsk) — Russian writer, public figure, psychologist, TV presenter, author of women's practices, candidate of psychological Sciences. Author of 8 bestsellers for women. He appears on TV and in the press as an expert psychologist. Creator and head of the public movement for the consolidation of creative and intellectual forces of the Pleiad society, author and head of the all-Russian project for vocational guidance of teenagers "PRO: talent development", founder and creative Director Of the Academy of private life.

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