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Love (Любовь) — it's intimate and profound feeling, striving to another person, human community, or the idea. In ancient mythology and poetry - the cosmic force, such force of gravity. In the ancient Greek philosopher and student of Socrates - Plato and Platonism love - eros - motive power of spiritual ascent; in ordinary discourse platonic love - love, free from sensual desire. Sexual love in its modern form individual electoral sense - the result of a long historical development of the human personality.

Love - one of the main religious and moral duties of a Christian, as articulated in the commandments of the Old and New Testaments.

Types of love in the human everyday life

Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov "The Meaning of Love"

(See. Biography of V.S. Solovyov)

Love twoThe meaning and the dignity of love as the feeling is that it forces us to do our whole being to recognize others as absolute central value, which, by virtue of selfishness, we experience only in themselves. Love is important, not as one of our senses, but as a transfer of all our vital interest of himself to another as a permutation of the very center of our personal lives. This is common to all love, sexual love but for the most part; it differs from other kinds of love and more intensity, more exciting character[ru] and the possibility of a full and complete reciprocity; Only this love can lead to real and for continuity of two lives into one, only about her, and the word of God says, there will be two in one flesh, then there will be real.

The feeling of fullness requires the connection of internal and final, but beyond that the subjective demands and aspirations of the matter usually does not go, and that is only transitory. In fact, instead of the poetry of the eternal and central connection takes only a more or less long, but still temporary, more or less close, but still external, superficial convergence of two limited beings in the narrow confines of everyday prose.

The subject of love does not keep to the reality of the absolute values ​​of which it has a dream of love. To an outsider view is clear from the outset; but involuntary tone of ridicule, is inevitably accompanied by someone else related to love, is only preceded by their own frustrations. At once or a little pathos love interest is held, and well even if it was manifested in the energy of altruistic feelings are not wasted, and only lost their concentration and high lift is transferred to the fragmented and diluted to children who are born and brought up to repeat the same of deception.

I say "fraud" - in terms of individual life and the absolute value of the human person, it is recognizing the need for and feasibility of procreation and the succession of generations for the progress of humanity in its collective life. But in fact love has nothing to do with it. The coincidence of a strong passion of love with a successful childbirth there is only a coincidence, and, moreover, is quite rare; historical and everyday experience certainly shows that children can be successfully fertility, dearly loved and well vospityvaemy their parents, even though the latter have never been in love with each other. Therefore, public and global interests of humanity, related to the change of generations, does not require the highest pathos of love. Meanwhile, in the life of an individual, this is the best of its flourishing empty shell. The original power of love loses all its meaning here, when its subject from a height of unconditional Center immortalized identity reduced to the level of random and legkozamenimogo funds for the new product, maybe a little better, and perhaps a little worse, but in any case the relative and transient generation.

Love and friendshipSo, if you only look at what usually happens, the actual outcome of love, should recognize her dream, to temporarily take possession of our being and disappear without going to any matter (because procreation is not the proper cause of love). But recognizing the effect Obviously, the ideal meaning of love is not carried out in reality, whether we admit it impractical?

By the very nature of man, who in his rational consciousness, moral freedom and the ability to self-improvement has endless possibilities, we can not assume in advance for it impracticable what else the task if it does not contain an internal logical contradictions or inconsistencies with the general meaning of the universe and the appropriate course of cosmic and historical development.

It would be totally unfair to deny the feasibility of love only on the grounds that it still had not been carried out: in fact in the same position and was once much more, for example, all science[ru] and art, civil society, the management of the forces of nature. Even the most reasonable minds before becoming in fact the person had only a vague desire and unsuccessful in the animal world. How many geological and biological eras passed in the unsuccessful attempts to create a brain that can become a body to implement a reasonable thought. Love for man there is the same than for the world was the mind of an animal: it exists in its beginnings or deposit, but not really. And if the world's great periods - witnesses unrealized mind - did not prevent him finally realized, much more unfulfilled love for a relatively few millennia, humanity experienced a historical, it does not give the right to conclude anything against its future implementation. It is just good to remember that if reality was rational consciousness in man, but not by the hand of man, the realization of love as the highest stage of his life to humanity itself, should take place not only in him, but through him.

The task of love is actually to justify the meaning of love, which initially given only in the sense; requires a combination of two limited data exist that would create one of them absolutely perfect person. - This problem is not only contains no internal contradictions and no discrepancies with the global sense, but it is directly given to our spiritual nature, a feature of which consists precisely in the fact that a person can, while remaining itself, in its own form instead of the absolute content, become the absolute personality. But in order to be filled with the absolute level (which in religious language is called eternal life, or kingdom of God), the human form itself is to be restored to its integrity (integrated).

The empirical reality of man as such not at all - it exists only in a certain one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness, both male and female personality (and on this basis to develop all other differences). But the real man in the fullness of his ideal personality, obviously, can not be only male or only female, "and should be the highest unity of both. To carry out this unity, or to create a true human being, as a free union of male and female, preserving its formal isolation, but overcame his considerable discord and disintegration - it has its own immediate task of love. Considering the conditions that are required for its actual resolution, we see that only failure to comply with these conditions leads to the continual collapse of love and makes it to accept an illusion.


The first step to any successful resolution of the problem is a conscious and correct its setting; but the task of love never consciously posed, and therefore never solved properly. In love and looked only look on this fact as the state (normal for some, painful for others), which is experienced by man, but to what it does not oblige; however, two problems are linked here: physiological possession favorite face and with him everyday Union - of which the latter imposes certain duties - but this is a matter subject to the laws of animal nature, on the one hand, and the civil laws of the hostel - on the other, and love, from beginning to end to itself, it disappears like a mirage. Of course, first of all, love is a fact of nature (or God's gift), independently of us there is a natural process; but this does not mean that we can not and should not have been consciously treat him and initiative to guide this natural process to a higher purpose. Gift of the word is also a natural affiliation human language is not invented, like love.

However, it would be very sad if we treated him as just a natural process, which by itself takes place in us, if we speak as birds sing, to indulge in a natural combination of sounds and words to express unwittingly passing through our souls feelings and ideas, and not made of language tools for the consistent implementation of certain thoughts, the means to achieve a reasonable and conscious goals. When extremely passive and unconscious relation to the gift of speech could not have formed neither science nor art, nor civil community, and the very language due to insufficient use of the gift would not develop and stayed at some rudimentary its manifestations. How important is the word for the formation of human society and culture, and the same is even more true love for the creation of human individuality. And if in the first region (social and cultural), we notice though slow but undeniable progress, while individual human from the beginning of historical times and until now remains unchanged in its actual limits, the first reason for this difference is that in a verbal activity and Works word we take more and more conscious and initiative, and love is still left entirely in the dark area affects vague and involuntary instincts.

As the true purpose of the word is not in the process of speaking in itself, and that is said - in the revelation of reason things through words or concepts, so the true purpose of love is not a simple one experiences this feeling, and that it both - in the case of love: it is not enough to feel for themselves the absolute value of the beloved object, and you need to really give it to him or to report the value to connect to it in the actual establishment of an absolute individuality. And as the supreme task of verbal activity is already predetermined by the very nature of the words that are inevitably general and staying concepts, not isolated and fleeting impressions, and therefore in themselves, as many bond together, leads us to the understanding of the meaning of the world, a similar way and highest task of love is already predestined in the amorous feelings that inevitably before any implementation introduces his subject in the sphere of absolute individuality, sees him in a perfect light, believe in it unconditionally.

Thus in both cases (and in verbal learning and in love) task is not to invent myself something completely new, and only, to consistently pursue further until the end of what has been rudimentary given the very nature of the case, at the heart of the process. But if the word humanity evolves and develops, the people were about love and still remain under some natural beginnings, and they are poorly understood in their true sense.


Everyone knows that when love is certainly peculiar idealization of the beloved object, which appears to loving in a different light than they are seen by outsiders. I'm talking here about the world not only in a metaphorical sense, it's not only in the special moral and mental assessment, and even in a particular sensory perception: Affectionate really see visually perceives not what others. And for him, however, that the light of love will soon disappear, but does it follow that it was false, it was only a subjective illusion?

The true nature of man in general and of each person is not confined to its data of empirical phenomena - that provision can not oppose reasonable and solid reason from any point of view. For the materialist and sensationalist at least for the spiritualist and idealist, that does not seem identical to what is, and when it is a question of two different kinds of apparent, it is always a legitimate question, which of these types of more coincides with that is, or better expresses the nature of things. For apparent or visible at all, there is a real relation or interaction between the seer and the seen, and therefore determines their mutual properties. Outside the world of man and the outside world mole - both composed only of relative phenomena or appearances; but hardly anyone seriously doubt that one of these two worlds seemingly superior to another, more in line with the fact that there are closer to the truth.

We know that a person other than his animal material nature is more perfect, linking him with the absolute truth or God. In addition to the material or empirical content of his life every man embodies the image of God, that is a special form of absolute content. This image of God is known theoretically and abstractly us in mind and through the mind, and of love, and he knew exactly vital. And if it is a revelation of the ideal beings usually closed material phenomenon is not limited to love one internal sense, but sometimes becomes perceptible in the sphere of the senses, much more important, we need to recognize love as the beginning of the restoration of the visible image of God in the material world, the beginning of the realization of the true ideal of humanity. The power of love, going out, transforming and spiritualizing the form of external phenomena, reveals its objective power, but then is a matter for us: we must understand this revelation and use it so that it does not remain fleeting and mysterious glimpse of some mystery.

The spiritual and physical recovery process image of God in humanity, the material can not take place by itself, apart from us. Start it like all the best in this world arises from a dark area for us unwitting processes and relations; there is the germ of the roots of the tree of life, but the age of his own, we have a conscious action; enough to start passive receptivity feelings, but then work required faith, moral achievement, and work to keep for themselves, to strengthen and develop the gift of light and creative love, through him to embody in the other the image of God and of the two limited and mortal creatures create one absolute and immortal personality. If unavoidable and inherent in involuntary idealization of love shows us through the empirical appearance of a distant ideal image of the beloved object, then, of course, not then, so we just admired them and then force us to the true faith, active imagination and real creativity transformed this true sample it does not meet the reality, make it a real phenomenon.

But who ever thought about anything like that about love? Medieval knights and minnesingers when his strong faith and a weak mind calmed down a simple identification of the ideal of love with the person, turning a blind eye to their apparent inconsistency. This belief was as hard and as barren as the rock on which "all in the same position," sat the famous knight background Gryunvalius "the castle Amalia."

In addition to this belief, makes only contemplate with reverence and enthusiastically chanting allegedly embodied the ideal of medieval love was, of course, associated with thirst feats. But these warlike and destructive deeds, not having nothing to inspire their ideals, could not lead to its implementation. Even the pale knight who gave himself completely to reveal to him the impression of heavenly beauty, without mixing it with terrestrial phenomena, and he was inspired by this revelation only to such actions, which were to the detriment of foreigners more than the benefit and glory "vechnozhenstvennogo."

Zumen coeli! Sancta rosa! He exclaims, Dick and Ryan, And the thunder of his threat of strikes Muslims.

To defeat the Muslims, of course, there was no need to have a "vision nepostizhnoe mind." But above all medieval chivalry tended this split between the heavenly vision of Christianity and the "wild and zealous" forces in real life, until the last of the famous and knights, Don Quixote de la Mancha, killed a lot of sheep and breaking many wings of windmills, but did not get closer to the ideal korovnitsu del Toboso Dulcinea, I did not come to the fair, but the negative consciousness of their error; and if the typical knight to the end remained faithful to his vision and "like a madman, he died," the Don Quixote of insanity passed only to sad and hopeless disappointment in his ideal.

This frustration of Don Quixote was a testament of chivalry new Europe. It acts in us until now. Idealization of love ceases to be a source of crazy feats, not inspiring to any. It is only the bait, makes us wish for the physical and worldly possession, and disappears as soon as this is not an ideal goal is achieved. The light of love for anybody not serve as a guiding beam to the lost paradise; it is viewed as a fantastic lighting brief love "Prologue in Heaven", which then dampens nature very timely as completely unnecessary for the subsequent earthly representation. In fact, the light extinguishes weakness and unconsciousness of our love, perverts the true order of things.


External connection, everyday and especially physiological, has no particular relationship to love. It is not love, and love happens without it. It is necessary to love, not as its sine qua non and end in itself, but only as its final implementation. If this implementation is put as a goal in itself perfect love affairs before she destroys love. Every external act or fact in itself is nothing; Love is something only because of its meaning, or the idea of ​​how to restore the unity and integrity of the human person as the establishment of an absolute individuality. The value associated with love the external acts and facts, which in itself is nothing, determined their attitude to what is the most love and her case. When zero is placed after a number, it increases it tenfold, and when placed before him, that "the same amount reduces or shatters it, takes his character integer, turning it into a decimal fraction; and the more of these zeros, presupposed a whole, the smaller the fraction, the closer she gets to zero.

The feeling of love itself is just the motivation that inspires us that we can and must re-create the integrity of the human being. Every time in the human heart this sacred spark is ignited, the whole creation groans and torments waiting for the first revelation of the glory of the children of God. But without the conscious action of the human spirit divine spark goes out and cheat nature creates new generations of the sons of men to new hopes.

These hopes were not fulfilled as long as we do not want to fully accept and implement before the end of everything that requires a true love that is her idea. If a conscious attitude to love and actual decision to fulfill her task primarily stopped two facts, apparently condemning us to powerlessness and justify those who believe love is an illusion. The feeling of love for his main sense we affirm the absolute value of the other individual, and through it the absolute value of its own. But the absolute personality can not be transient, and it can not be empty. The inevitability of death[ru] and emptiness of our lives are utterly incompatible with the high approval of his personality, and the other, which is the feeling of love. This feeling, if it is hard and quite consciously, can not be reconciled with the certainty of impending enfeeblement and death of a loved person and his own.

Meanwhile, the undoubted fact that all people are always dying and dying, all or almost all of the course adopted an immutable law (so that even in formal logic made use of that confidence to produce a model of the syllogism: "All men are mortal; Kai people; therefore, Kai mortal "). Many, however, believe in the immortality of the soul; but it is the feeling of love is best shown by failure of an abstract faith. Neutral is not a man, as an angel; but we love a person, the whole human personality, and if love is the beginning of enlightenment and spirituality of the individual, it is necessary to require preservation of it as such, it requires eternal youth and immortality of that particular person, that embodied in the solid body of the living spirit. Angel or pure spirit does not need enlightenment and spirituality; Only enlightened and spiritualized flesh, and it is necessary the object of love. You can imagine anything, but love can only be a living, concrete, and loving it really can not be reconciled with confidence in its destruction.

But if the inevitability of death is incompatible with true love, immortality is completely incompatible with the emptiness of our lives. For most of human life is only a change of heavy mechanical work and grubochuvstvennyh, stun consciousness pleasures. And that minority, which has the ability to actively take care of not only the means but also about the purpose of life, but instead uses his freedom from mechanical work mainly for the senseless and immoral pastime. I have nothing to spread about the emptiness and immorality - an involuntary and unconscious - all this imaginary life after her magnificent play "Anna Karenina," "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" and "Kreutzer Sonata." Returning to his subject, will show only on the obvious consideration that the death of such a life is not only inevitable, but also highly desirable: can not terrible longing to imagine infinite continued existence of any society lady, or any athlete, or card player?

Incompatibility with the existence of immortality is clear at a glance. But more attention such as incompatibility, we will have to recognize and respect the other, apparently more fulfilling existence. If, instead of a society lady or a player we will take, at the opposite pole, the great men, geniuses, gifted mankind immortal, or change the fate of nations, we will see that the content of their life and the fruits of its historical significance only have the data once and for all, and an infinite continuation of individual existence of these geniuses on earth would lose all meaning. Immortality works, obviously, it does not require or even by itself preclude continued immortality officials carrying out their individuality.

Can you imagine Shakespeare endlessly composing his drama, or Isaac Newton, endlessly continued to study celestial mechanics, not to mention the absurdity of infinite continuation of this activity, a sort of famous Alexander the Great or Napoleon Bonaparte. Obviously, the arts, science, politics, giving the content of the individual aspirations of the human spirit and the historical time satisfying the needs of humanity, does not tell the absolute, self-sufficient content of the human personality, and therefore do not need her immortality. This only needs love, and it can only achieve this. True love is that which not only claims in the subjective feeling of unconditional value of the human personality and the other in itself, but it is absolute value for money in a really, really saves us from the inevitability of death, and fills the absolute level of our lives.

About Love by Sergei Sergeyevich Averintsev

Sergey Averincev (December 10, 1937, Moscow - February 21, 2004, Vienna) - Russia's linguist, a cultural, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2003), corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1991; corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1987). I researched and translated the works of late antique, early Christian and medieval literature of the Mediterranean region (including the Byzantine, Latin and Syriac). Proceedings of the 20th century philosophy of culture; European translations of prose and poetry of the 20th century. USSR State Prize (1990). Author of articles in Backman: Jesus Christ, Christianity.

Love (hereinafter - "LA") you need to include a rush, and will for permanence, are made in an ethical requirement of fidelity. It arises as the most free and so far "unpredictable" expression of the depths of the person; it can not be forced to either call, nor overcome. The importance and complexity of the phenomenon of this feeling are determined by the fact that there is in focus, crossed the opposite biological and spiritual, personal and social, intimate and universal significance. On the one hand, gender or parental love it includes healthy biological instincts, common in humans with animals, and unthinkable without them. On the other hand, love the idea may be a smart delight possible only at a certain level of culture.

about loveBut no matter how different from each other in their psychological material love that a mother loves her newborn baby, LA, where his beloved in love with love, and LA, which the citizen loves his country, all this is LA, different from anything that only "like" on it - from the selfish "desire" or "preferences" or "interest". "The true essence of love is to give up the consciousness of oneself, forget oneself in another and I, however, in the same disappearance and oblivion for the first time to find yourself and enjoy himself" (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Works, Volume 13, M., 1940. p. 107).

Developed terminology of different types of love existed in ancient Greek. "Eros" - is a spontaneous and passionate dedication, enthusiastic infatuation directed to carnal or spiritual, but always looking at its subject "bottom-up" and leaves no room for compassion or mercy. "Branch" - a friendship-LA, LA-friendliness individual to individual due to social ties and personal choice. "Storge" - this is LA, tenderness, especially the family, "agape" - sacrificial and sniskhodyaschaya L. "for one's neighbor."

Understanding of Love in the myth and ancient systems of philosophy takes the AL as "eros", seeing it as a cosmic force, such force of gravity. God Eros is mentioned in the mythological epic of ancient Greek poet Hesiod as one of the originator and organizer of the universe, born immediately after Chaos and Mother Earth; even more honorable role for him in the Orphic cosmogony. For the ancient Greek philosopher, physician, politician Empedocles entire history of the cosmos - is the confrontation of love ("branch") as a constructive start and hatred as the beginning of dissociation. This mythological and philosophical doctrine about how LA is building, unifying, driving and balancing the energy of the universe is characteristic of Greek thought as a whole, it hylozoism. Even Aristotle saw in the movement of the celestial sphere the manifestation of a universal love of the spiritual principle of movement - a stationary prime mover (which was theologically reinterpreted in medieval philosophy and was reflected in the final verse of "The Divine Comedy" by Dante Alighieri: "The love that moves the sun and light").

Continuing the same line, the ancient Greek Stoic philosopher, the largest representative of the so-called Middle Stoa - Poseidonius developed the doctrine of the worldwide "sympathy" of things and natural forces, extremely popular in the last centuries of antiquity, and later attracted many thinkers and poets of the Renaissance and modern times (up to Johann Wolfgang Goethe). Another line of ancient philosophy LA begins with Plato, interpreted in the dialogue "Feast" sensual infatuation and aesthetic delight in the beautiful body as the lowest rung of the ladder of spiritual ascent, leading to a perfect Leningrad, the subject of which - the absolute good and absolute beauty (hence simplistic everyday expression platonic love). The doctrine of Plato, Platonic and Neo-Platonic about "erotic" way to the absolute typologically comparable with the Indian mystic doctrine of "bhakti" - ecstatic L., is one of the four possible paths of enlightenment.

But in the Indian tradition of transcendental ecstasies "bhakti" stand side by side with the rational and pragmatic hedonism "Kama Sutra" - the unusual "textbook" love of pleasure, trying to meticulously organize and to "rationalize" the relationship of man and woman, and in the culture of ancient Greece between carnal "eros "and abstractly spiritual" eros "was little room for the" soul "for LA to the concrete, living, suffering person in need of care, compassion, and respect. Hellenic love lyrics, which reached extraordinary subtlety in plastic descriptions, as in the fixing of egocentric passions of love, is powerless to understand L. between man and woman as a confrontation, dispute or the harmony of the two personalities.

A woman who refuses to be a mere instrument of the men in the family or outside the family toy, can act only as a figure of tragedy, endowed with traits of criminals (Clytemnestra in Aeschylus) or Inozemka witches (Medea in Euripides). With this radical disregard for the spiritual world of women due to the characteristic of ancient Greece fundamental preference for homosexual love, take various forms (military partnership, the relationship spiritual mentor and student, etc.). According to the well-known remark of a thinker and political figure of Friedrich Engels, "... the classical poet of antiquity, sings the praises of love, old Anacreon, sexual love in our sense was so indifferent that he was indifferent even the floor of the loved one" (Karl Marx and Engels, Works, 2 edition, Volume 21, p. 79). In this respect, with the ancient Greek poet Anacreon was completely agrees Plato. Step forward made Roman love poetry (Roman poets lyrical Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, the episode of Dido in the "Aeneid" by Virgil), which opened in the beloved personal autonomy, something frightening her enigmatic self-will, the caller along with the tenderness of love and compassion. Ironically conceived attempt to create a systematic and Ovid codified "theory" was the beginning of love, tradition, revived in the Middle Ages - an era of scholasticism and casuistry.

Christian saw in his love as the essence of God (which, unlike the gods of ancient religions, not just love, but he loves all) and the great commandment to man. But it was a very special L. ("agape"), like no sensual "eros", or friendship of your choice ("branch") or the solidarity of patriotic citizens. It was about sacrifice, "covering everything" and unmotivated to LA "neighbor" - not to "close" by the nature or personal inclination is not to "own", but to the one who happens to be close, and in particular to the enemy and the offender. It was assumed that such a love can induce love to take all the social disharmony and the way to cancel them. But if towards people prescribed sniskhodyaschaya "agape", the respect to the Christian god pagan Mystery solved after talking about the enthusiastic "eros" (this usage is especially characteristic of the unknown Christian Neoplatonist V century, who wrote the so-called Areopagitica, and the whole set up their traditions).

As a Christian "agape" and Christian "eros" had an ascetic character. For vneasketicheskih spheres of life in the late Middle Ages it was designed "courtly" theory of love between man and woman from the feudal environment: L. found such a place exclusively outside of marriage (as the real bond or adoration from afar), but obeys its own laws of politeness, delicacy and generosity. This particular cult ladies went through the poetry of the troubadours and minnesingers finding an echo in the images of Dante's Beatrice and Laura in the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca. Petrarch withdrew tradition spiritualization L. from the scope of feudal life, passing its educated urban circles and connecting it with the spirit of the Renaissance. "Petrarkizm" love and love poetry spread to Western Europe, vulgarizuyas to the surface on an idealized sense of fashion. Renaissance showed intense interest in Plato's theory of "eros" ascending from the aesthetics to the aesthetics of the sensual spiritual ("Dialogues L." Leone Ebreo, 1501 - 1502).

Spinoza radically rethink the scholastic concept of "intellectual love of God," they cast him out of the context of traditional ideas of a personal God as the subject and not just the object L .: This central concept of "ethics" of Spinoza's thought is delighted to depths of the world of being, not waiting for itself L. no response from these depths. The philosophy of the Encyclopedists of the 18th century, in his polemic against asceticism, emphasized the joyful natural feeling L. and interfaced with him "properly understood interest" of the individual (in the spirit of the concept of "rational egoism"). Underestimating the inherent capabilities of the tragic love of self-sacrifice, it is often mixed with L. "addiction" and "benevolence" and happiness with hedonistic self-gratification. Adjustments have been made going from Jean-Jacques Rousseau's sentimentalism and movement "Sturm und Drang" romanticism is prepared; thanks to this movement before and during the Great French Revolution was understood as L. rush destroying framework of class barriers and social conventions, reunited in the spontaneous unity "that is strictly divided custom" (Friedrich Schiller).

Representatives of German romanticism (Novalis, Friedrich Schlegel, Franz Xaver von Baader) and the German classical idealism (Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling, the young Hegel), reviving the philosophy of Plato, "eros" love is interpreted as a metaphysical principle of unity, removing split into reason to believe subject and object. With this problem gnoseologizatsiey L. romantics understanding coexisted in the "dark", "night" irrational psychology L., sometimes anticipating psychoanalysis, and emphasized the profound, philosophical exaltation developed senses, the elements (for example, "Lyutsinde" Friedrich Schlegel). So the romantic ideal of love is between exaltation and immorality merging both together; German romanticism and the pan-European "Byronism" undertake rehabilitation of the legendary Don Juan, but as a medium L. yearning incarnated to perfection, in the name of L. Allow yourself to systematic brutality "imperfect" lover. This aspect of the ideal of the Romantics was the end of the 19th century brought to its logical extreme in the doctrine of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche's "L. to the future "(as opposed to" L.'s neighbor ") is to place a particular love for the man who is, put a blank L. internally to the superman, which is not.

The most important line of thinking about the love for the 19th century is associated with contrasting its "rational" bourgeois utilitarianism. The very generalized (and distracted) principle for L. Feuerbach lay generic essence of man, is subjected to alienation and perversion of all religions of the world. Some thinkers and poets were ready to look for the "heat" missing "cold" and "asexual" hypocritical prudence world businessmen in sensual love (tune of "rehabilitation of the flesh", has found echoes in motion Enfantin, the German poet, essayist and critic Henry Heine and the "Young Germany" in the works of the German composer, conductor and music writer Richard Wagner, etc.). Others, like the English writer Charles Dickens and the Russia[ru] writer Fyodor Dostoevsky, oppose selfishness as the fundamental inhumanity L. compassion and conscience, love, self-sacrifice, which "does not seek its own." At the same time in the pessimistic philosophy of the 19th century, the task of "expose" LA that was provoked by the romantic exaltation and prepared their own "exposure."

For the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer irrationalist love between the sexes is an illusion by which the world will make irrational defrauded individuals to be blind instruments of procreation. At the turn of the 19th - 20th centuries, the Austrian psychiatrist and psychologist, founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud undertook a systematic perevёrtyvanie Platonic doctrine of L. As Plato "Symposium", Freud postulated the fundamental source of unity connecting manifestation of sexual passion with the phenomena of spiritual life; but if Plato spiritualization "eros" meant his rise to its own nature and purpose, that Freud is only deception, subject to debunking pereryazhivanie "repressed" sexual desire ("libido"). The only real aspect of L. (besides all, not only sexual love) was declared the biological, to him and offered without reserve to reduce the richness of the manifestations of LA and creativity.

After Freud Western European idealism has taken a number of attempts to restore the understanding of love as a path to truth and deep at the same time this very truth. The "philosophy of life" L. stands as one of the synonyms of the "life", the beginning of creative freedom and dynamics (as the French philosopher, representative of the intuitional and philosophy of life of Henri Bergson (in the "philosophy of life"), the concept of "rush L." directly correlated with the key concept of "vital impulse"). Since, however, love can not be reduced to its natural aspects and can not be deprived of a personal nature, metaphysics L. is for many one of the ways to move from the "philosophy of life" to personalism and existentialism. In this regard, the figure of the German idealist philosopher, one of the founders of axiology, the sociology of knowledge and philosophical anthropology of Max Scheler, who saw in the act of love "voschuvstvovaniya values" by which a person enters into a spiritual space of freedom that characterizes the world of values, and the first real It becomes a person.

Love for Scheler was not only as the only mode of relationship to the "values", but the only way of knowing the "values". The motif of absolute freedom in the sense of L. its indeterminacy podhvatyvaltsya existentialists. Representatives of religious existentialism (Jewish religious philosopher and writer, a representative of Judaism M. Buber, the French philosopher, playwright and literary critic, founder of the Catholic existentialism, Gabriel Marcel Honore) talked about love as a spontaneous breakthrough from the world of "it" in the world "you" from the impersonal "to have" a personal "being." The whole philosophy of L. unfolds against the backdrop of an acute and rather hopeless criticism of "alienated", impersonal and loveless world capitalist civilization, standing under the banner of "have".

An appeal against this "cold" peace in the name of some "heat", even though the "animal", often clothed in the West in the form of so-called controversial sexual revolution. Always side by side with antikonformistskimi, anti-war and anti-racist sentiment, it, however, is itself an expression of alienation and stimulating factor legitimate commercial eroticism.

Love in Marxist philosophy

In the Marxist philosophy of love interpreted in the context of the dialectical materialist conception of the person, its spiritual world, relations with society. The concept of identity can not think outside of her emotional life, a critical component of which is L., manifested in the form of feelings, emotion, attitude assessment and electoral activity of the person. In all the variety of its forms L. directly and deeply affects the essential aspects of life, not only every person, but also society as a whole, expressing a social group and of human solidarity, and as a source of devotion and even heroism. LA, with its contradictions, dramatic collisions is a recurring theme of the world of art and literature, folk art.

Love is in the public domain of human development. It has its biological conditions in animals, expressed in the parental and sexual instincts related to the continuation and preservation of nature. The history of society, social and labor activity, communication, art raised these biological instincts to a higher level of moral and aesthetic feeling truly human LL is an experience, always deterministic external influence, which is refracted through the internal conditions of the spiritual life of man, and through the instinctual needs and desire. Sexual love, according to Marx, there is a kind of measure of the extent to which people in their individual being is a social being. As a result of the socialization process, familiarizing with historical culture, developed on the basis of social norms and values ​​of the person and loves and finds ways to meet this feeling.

However, LA is deeply personal nature. People differ not only in the way they like, but they show that feeling. L. individually and in some ways unique, reflecting the unique features of the way of life of every person, life and customs of the people, the uniqueness of a particular culture, the position of a particular social group, etc. "... If many minds think alike, then how many hearts, so many kinds of love" (Leo Tolstoy, Collected Works, 1952, Volume 8, p. 148). However, in this sense all people have something in common that makes it possible to talk about love in a very generalized form.

It is known that the structure of emotional life is replaced, in accordance with the change of eras. In this regard, it modified and feeling of love, which bears the stamp and the class relations and the transformation of the person as a carrier of this sense, the change of value orientations. Karl Marx pointed out that not only the usual five senses but also the so-called spiritual senses, the practical senses (love, will, and so on. D.), In a word, human sense, the humanity of the senses arise only through the existence of the object, because humanized nature (see. Marx and Engels from the early works, pp. 593 - 594).

L. Engels characterized it in the modern form of individual electoral sense as a complex product of a long history. "Modern sexual love differs essentially from the simple sexual desire, eros by the ancient. First, it involves a loved being mutual love; In this respect, the woman is on an equal footing with men, whereas the ancient Eros is not always required its consent. Secondly, the strength and duration of sexual love are such that the inability of possession and separation are presented both sides of the great, if not the greatest misfortune; they go to great risk, even put his life at stake, just to belong to each other ... Appears a new moral criterion for judgment and justification for sexual intercourse; ask not only about whether it was marriage or illegitimate, but also about whether it originated on mutual love or not? "(K. Marx and F. Engels, Works, 2 edition, Volume 21, pp. 79 - 80 ). A specific characteristic of love is and the electoral activity of the person, and relative self-forgetfulness, and selfless dedication, and the idealization of the object L.

Spiritual intimacy in love feels like a constant mental mutual communication as a loving attitude, where one person directs his thoughts and feelings to another, and evaluates their actions, material and spiritual values ​​in a constant ratio to the way it would have looked a loved one. LA has a complex dynamic intellectual and emotional-volitional system consisting of a plurality of changing elements. Feeling a sense of L., a person is experiencing tenderness, passion, desire fidelity, anxiety and fear, jealousy, anger, joy and so on. In contrast to the fleeting, fast transient feeling of enthusiasm true love involves deep feelings, different fullness of its manifestation and integrity are inseparable, " tramp ".

Love does not necessarily imply reciprocity. "If you love without arousing reciprocal t. E. If your love as love does not produce reciprocal love, if you are a manifestation of his life as a loving person you do not like a man loved, then your love is impotent, and she - misery" (Marx K. and Engels, From early works, 1956, p. 620). LA is detected in its aspiration is not just a creature of the opposite sex, and identity with its uniqueness, which acts as something extremely valuable because of their emotional and volitional, intellectual, moral and aesthetic qualities, as it makes up for what "not enough" loving man. Individually with their natural and spiritual differences complement each other to form a single whole.

Love has no unambiguous objective value, unquestionable for all. One and the same person can be an object, and LA, and hatred or contempt on the part of not only different people, but even the same person at different times and in different states. The value of an object is determined by its AL value for a given individual, for her needs, interests and ideals, which creates the conditions for updating mechanisms L. Love socially developed person is conscious character as a whole, however, obeying the authority and unconscious driving forces that express themselves and in the fact of the birth of this feeling, and in the selection of the object L., in the forms of its manifestation, although in the latter the power of the mind is more powerful. As the election, free and at the same time organically forced expression of the natural and spiritual depths of the person, L. nor in his appearance, nor in the extinction of not "programmed" mind and will, although it is under their control.

L. includes life-affirming instincts and impulses "flesh" and even unthinkable without them neither in their genesis or in fact. However, in its higher manifestations, and the beginning of carnal love acquires features of authentic beauty and is associated with aesthetic pleasure. Mother admires her baby, and loving - lover. AL to the idea, creativity, the homeland may also deliver an intelligent, moral and aesthetic pleasure.

In the USSR in the 1920s, it had a spread of the concept of so-called free love, sharply acted against which Lenin: "Of course you know the famous theory that if in a communist society to meet the sexual desire and need for love is as simple slightly like a glass of water. From this theory of "glass of water" our young people mad, just mad. This theory was the evil fate of many young men and women ... I believe the famous theory of "glass of water" completely Marxist and, moreover, antisocial. The sexuality is manifested not only given by nature, but adscititious culture, whether it is elevated or low ... Of course, thirst demands satisfaction. But would a normal person under normal conditions, will be on the street in the dirt and will drink from a puddle? Or even from a glass whose edge bedraggled dozens lips? But the most important social aspect. Drinking water is really an individual matter. But love involves two, and there is a third, a new life. Here lies the public interest, there is a duty to the collective "(" Memories of Lenin, "Volume 2, 1957, pp. 483 - 484).

Love plays an important educational role, providing a salutary influence on the formation of personality and in the phylogeny, and individual human development. It promotes awareness of a sense of personality itself, the development of her spiritual world, causes impulses to self-improvement, makes a person richer content.

Love - great ornament of human life. She has played and plays a huge role in the development of art, which, in turn, all their means poetisized L., gave it the character of something majestic, sublime, noble. LA is the moral basis of marital relationships (family). (Alexander G. Spirkin (b. 1918) - the Russian philosopher and psychologist, Corresponding Member of RAS (1991, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1974). Proceedings of the general problems of philosophy)

Literature about love

Films about Love

Melodrama about love

Anime about love

Poems about love

It happens in the life of a minute

It happens in the life of a minute,
What I do not want to live,
And I want to cry
And hard to love.

I'm sad without you and sad

I'm sad without you and sad,
I miss you ... and I is not nice white light!
I understand that my life could not be happier,
When you're next to me, no!

Love, miss, love

Love, miss, love,
I go mad and die
From your perfection.
I want to hug, kiss,
And never let go,
You cry in my soul believe,
I will not give you now !!!

Close your eyes, imagine a star

Close your eyes, imagine a star
The one where I'm sitting.
You see, come,
And tenderly embrace.
Softly whisper in my ear:
"Kitten, I love you ..."

Darling, prevents me from sleeping!

Darling, prevents me from sleeping!
You stop soon
No knock on my dreams to climb -
Ogreyu Frying Pan ...

Your eyes are full of fire

Your eyes[ru] are full of fire,
And the skin - silk on a slender body.
I was mad with joy,
And I could not believe miracles.

Nature have you pushed

Nature have you encountered.
They made me love
And wherever I was not
I can not forget you.

My dear, sweet, dear

My dear, sweet, darling,
My best and favorite!
My sweet, so dear
And life is so necessary!

You - like a cat

Darling, you - like a cat:
Beautiful and ... a little bit of prey
I was with the thought of you can not sleep,
But just do not be the tigress.

How many stars in the sky

How many stars in the sky,
How many stones in the water,
So many sweet kisses
I am sending you!

My illness is not curable

My illness is not curable,
After all, I'm disease[ru]! of you, darling
My chest is burning fire,
And love goes hot!

Forget you? And with whom I will be

Forget you? And with whom I will be...
Sadness, joy to share?
Let me forget all the best,
How can I forget you...

Statuses about love

Declarations of Love

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