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Nation

State, Nation

Nation (государство) — in theory law way of organizing society, the main element of the political system, the organization of the public political power based on the means and measures of coercion. As a management company system nation has an internal structure that has special bodies for the implementation of its powers - nation mechanism, the nation apparatus. In constitutional law, the term refers to all the official nation power authorities (government, parliament, courts), acting nationally or territorial-political unit with local government bodies.

In international law, the nation is the main actor in international relations, including political organization of power and the population with a particular territory. The main quality is its nation sovereignty. The nation has some form of government (monarchy, republic), in the form of government may be unitary or Federation.

Independent nation has sovereign rights: the right to determine their own internal political and socio-economic system, the right to conclude international agreements, to provide territorial asylum. The sovereign right of Nations can apply to objects and actions of individuals and entities not only within their national territory, but also abroad.

More retaining original punctuation and meaning from an alternative source:

Nation (hereinafter - the "N.") - is the main instrument of political power in a class society. In a broader sense, the nation understand the political form of organization of society, which develops as a result of the emergence and activities of public authorities - a special control system, leading the main spheres of public life and, if necessary, based on the power of coercion. Since g of based on the territorial principle, the term is sometimes inaccurately used as a synonym of the concept "country". There are various types of Nations - slave, feudal, bourgeois, socialist; various forms of N. - Monarchy (absolute and constitutional), the republic (parliamentary and presidential), Soviet republic, unitary nation and union N. (federation). By mid-1971, there were about 150 countries.

The main features of the nation

Nation of a social phenomenon limited to certain historical framework. The primitive communal system did not know the nation. It arose as a result of the social division of labor, the emergence of private property and the division of society into classes. Economically dominant class need to protect their privileges and fix the system operating in a specific power mechanisms of political domination, and how was N. and his staff. With the advent of the nation, this mechanism does not coincide with the company, as it stands over him and maintained at the expense of society (taxes, fees). No matter how different historical forms N., public authorities and organizations N. apparatus, its essence, the nature of its relations with society - is the political power of the ruling class (the dictatorship of the class). Classes owning the means of production are using, the political mainstream and thereby reinforce their economic and social dominance and leadership role within a given society and in its relations with other Nations and countries.

The nation, therefore, due ultimately the character of production relations and the mode of production as a whole, it is a superstructure over the economic basis. Is this relationship can not be understood and explained the genesis N., the transition from one historical type of N. to another. Throughout history, N. acquired in relation to the basis of a significant, albeit relatively, independence. Its independent impact on major aspects of society (including оn the economy), historical and social processes is very important and is carried out in different directions, i.e. N. could contribute to the development of public relations, or, conversely, inhibit it. As the complexity of nation-organized society the role of exposure increases.

Over a long period in the history of antagonistic class formations nation existed as an instrument of domination of the propertied minority over the exploited majority. The main function of this type N. consisted and consists in securing and protecting the economic and political conditions of exploitation and domination of the propertied classes, crackdown poor masses. With regard to the ruling class N. acts as a special body for managing the common affairs of individuals and groups in this class, and in relation to the working classes, t. E. The majority of the population - as an instrument of oppression. However, the nation of society as the official representative and the control system can not exercise and general social activities designed to maintain the necessary conditions for the existence of a civilized human society (organization of transport, communication, education, health and so on. N.). In this regard, Karl Marx singled in the activities of the nation "... the implementation of the general affairs arising from the nature of any society, and specific functions arising from the antithesis between the government and the masses of the people" (Marx and Friedrich Engels, Soch., 2nd ed. , vol. 25, part. 1, p. 422). However, the main activity in the exploitative N. determined precisely the opposite of this: "The nation is a machine for the oppression of one class by another, a machine for holding in obedience to one class other, subordinated classes" (Lenin, Collected op., 5th ed., v. 39, p. 75). Only in the 20th century as a result of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia, an entirely new type N. - socialist nation, which is the political power of the working majority, and then all the people (nation-wide) and opens up the prospect of transition, with the elimination of classes to nationless forms of governance.

Pre-bourgeois social and political thought has put forward various kinds of religious and theocratic ideas about N., and so on. N. "Patriarchal theory", which treated as an extension of N. paternal authority in the family. However, it usually does not distinguish N. Bourgeois society and science also did not give a satisfactory answer to the question of the essence, Lenin noted that"... there is hardly another question, so confused, deliberately and unintentionally representatives of bourgeois science ... as a matter of the nation "(ibid, p. 66). The basic approach of bourgeois science to the nation - the rejection of the thesis of N. as an instrument of class rule in general, as an instrument of class domination of capital. Widespread in bourgeois literature as the definition of a combination of power, population and territory is superficial, formal and incomplete, precisely because it ignores the class rule as a constructive factor that unites these three features in the concept, the representatives of the organic theory of the nation depicted in the form of nation- special living organism, it is transferred to the biological laws, thus justifying as natural phenomena, on the one hand, exploiting the oppressed masses, N., and on the other - the expansionist aspirations of N. The other direction - the so-called School of Law - hides a socio-economic N. its legal interpretation, considering N. solely as a legal phenomenon ("legal personification of the nation", "the personification of law and order" and so on. n.). Have been several attempts to interpret frankly idealistic N. as a product of special spiritual principles, "the idea of ​​the nation." In contemporary bourgeois political science prevails psychological concept N., N. explains the presence of the human psyche aspirations - "pulses" - power and subordination.

A truly scientific theory of the nation was created by Marx, Engels, and VI Lenin. Its creation allowed to reveal the essence of N. as a social phenomenon, establish its internal, indigenous, high-quality features, the basic purpose and function, its role in a class society, a reflection of the spirit, in various forms and political regimes. Marxist theory of N., reveals patterns of development, during the change of social and historical formations - an important starting point for the theory of the socialist revolution and the ways of the communist transformation of society.

Historical types of Nations

Each class socio-economic structure corresponds to a certain historical type of nation. Change of historical types N. - a natural process of elimination of outdated forms of nation organization of society, fettering its development, and replacing them with new nation, promoting the folding and consolidate a more developed social structure. Therefore, the functions of each subsequent type N., methods of implementation and its political forms richer and more complex than the organization of the political power of the preceding formations.

The first in the history of the nation was a slave nation - the dictatorship of slave-owning class. The essence of this N. reflect the first major class division of society - of slaves and slave owners. The emergence of the slave belongs to N. 4 - 3rd millennium BC, when there was a formation, in ancient Egypt, ancient China and in the territory of Mesopotamia. Within the framework of this type can be identified by N. Nation of the Ancient East (Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Assyria and others.) Into which the remnants of the primitive communal system. Features of development of the productive forces (in particular, the need to build and maintain irrigation systems) resulted in a considerable economic role, in these countries, where the characteristic form of government was a despot, a despotic monarchy. The most fully developed system of slave nation reached in the ancient Nations of ancient Greece and Rome.

In the developed countries of slavery, there were various forms of government: monarchy (the Roman Empire), an aristocratic republic (Sparta), or a democratic republic (Athens). However, the variety of forms of government, any N. antiquity "... was a nation slave anyway - whether it was a monarchy or a republic, aristocratic or democratic" (VI Lenin, ibid, vol. 39, p. 74).

Feudal nation arose in connection with the birth of feudal relations of production. Its occurrence in Europe refers to 5 - 11 centuries. The basis of feudal society was feudal lord owns the land and the feudal nation of a dictatorship of the feudal class. The main form of government is a monarchy, the feudal N. in its various versions. For the period of feudal fragmentation characteristic of feudal monarchy, when in the presence of a weak central government, there were a multitude of independent or semi-independent N. (principalities, senor, etc. N.). In the process of centralization of nation power has developed class-representative monarchy. One of the pillars of the central government in this process are well-off cities; as a result of any bodies of representation (Zemsky Sobor in Russia, the Nations-General in France, the Parliament in England, and so on. n.). Historically, the last form of feudal N. was an absolute monarchy (absolutism), which developed during the final overcoming of feudal fragmentation and the completion of the formation of a centralized N. In absolute monarchy sovereignty autocratic and unlimited belongs to one person - the monarch, without any participation of the people in the law and in control for control. In the era of feudalism existed peculiar N. - t. N. the city-nation, which established a republican form of government (Novgorod, Pskov, Venice, Genoa, Florence et al.). Power in the city-N. belonged to the rich elite of the population (urban aristocracy, patricians), its representatives formed the Town Council (Senate), elected senior officials. City-N. there were, as a rule, the most important trade routes, they most commonly developed crafts and trade, first of all evolved capitalist relations. For all N. feudal type characterized by the high role of the church as a political and ideological forces of feudal society, to promote and strengthen the rule of feudal lords over the mass of the exploited population.

The bourgeois nation was the result of the bourgeois revolutions against feudal-absolutist monarchy and feudal relations. Where the bourgeoisie in the hall of these revolutions was to compromise with the nobility (eg Great Britain), N. bourgeois took the form of a constitutional monarchy; the same place where the bourgeoisie sought a more or less complete domination, it takes the form of a democratic republic. The multiplicity of forms of government, the remaining bourgeois and the subsequent characteristic of the bourgeois type N., although the difference between these forms considerably smoothed. "The forms of bourgeois Nations are extremely varied, but their essence is the same: all these Nations, one way or another, but in the final analysis are inevitably the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" (VI Lenin, ibid, vol. 33, p. 35).

Period of the bourgeois nation monopoly capitalism has the following features:

In the era of imperialism and especially the general crisis of capitalism has been a huge growth of the bourgeois nation apparatus. N. Impact on the main spheres of public life grew, it expanded functions. These processes are primarily associated with the exacerbation of class contradictions. The growth of consciousness and organization of the working class and others. Labor sectors of the population, the prevalence of communist ideas lead, on the one hand, an increase in the level of the class struggle, the expansion of anti-monopoly and democratic movements, and on the other - to the successive narrowing of the social base of the political rule of capital. Under these conditions, the monopoly To strengthen the basic instrument of their rule - N. and his military-police apparatus. Strengthening the role of the nation is connected with militarism and the development of nation-monopoly capitalism (nation monopoly capitalism).

Under nation-monopoly capitalism, a complication of technical and production aspects of society as a consequence of the technological revolution, along with the expansion functions of coercion has reached significant scale economic function of the bourgeois N., as well as its ideological activity inside and outside the country. Nation-monopoly capitalism combined with the power of the power monopolies, in a single mechanism in order to save the capitalist system, to enrich the monopolies, the suppression of the labor movement and the national liberation struggle, a war of aggression. Monopoly capital is not shared with anyone political power and bourgeois N. acted as a body to manage the affairs of the monopoly bourgeoisie. Splicing process reached its climax with the top of the monopolies of the nation apparatus.

The political regime established bourgeois N., its form of government has had a significant impact monopoly capital turn from bourgeois democracy to the reaction as a result of narrowing of the social base of nation-wah and the use of the working class and others. Labor layers institutions of bourgeois democracy. The clearest expression of this shift was the establishment of a totalitarian fascist nation (the classic example of this was Mr. Nazi Germany). However, while maintaining the bourgeois-democratic forms of government were developed authoritarian tendencies to the rule of "strong personality", the role of government and its staff due to the depreciation of office of an elected parliament, was carried out attacks on democratic rights and freedoms of citizens and organizations. But the authoritarian course of the monopoly bourgeoisie came across opposition to the masses led by the working class, acting in defense of their democratic gains because of their expansion, which led to the aggravation of class contradictions of bourgeois society.

For external function imperialist nation is characterized by the pursuit of expansion. This tendency of monopoly capital twice in the 20th century plunged mankind into devastating world wars - the First World War[ru] and the Second World War[ru]. N. led imperialist subversion, including ideological, against the socialist countries, looking for new forms of neo-Nations in Asia, Africa and Latin America, embarked on the path of independence.

The expansion of economic activity of the imperialist nation TV portrayed bourgeois ideologists as supposedly radical transformation and its transformation into a "welfare nation" and the complexity of the political structure of modern capitalism (increased role of political parties, trade unions and other associations and organizations) - the process of "diffusion of power" ("welfare nation theory", "The diffusion of power" theory (the theory of diffusion of power)). In fact, it was an imperialist and remains the main instrument of class rule of the imperialist bourgeoisie, it acts as a force trying to hold social progress, to perpetuate outdated capitalist social relations.

In the era of the collapse of colonialism formed many independent Nations in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and the colonial and semi-colonial countries have been fighting for national independence. A significant part of the newly independent N. Economic and social features (mixed economy, etc.) Can not be attributed to any of the major types of H. N. Some of these embarked on non-capitalist path of development, focusing in the long term to build a socialist society. These N.h socialist orientation is a serious economic and social transformation: the holding of democratic agrarian reforms, the creation of the public sector in the economy, the nationalization of the property of foreign monopolies, and so on. D.

The socialist nation

As a result of the socialist revolution, entailing scrapped exploitative apparatus N., there was a fundamentally new type N. - socialist nation. Prototype, the socialist type, the first organization of nation power of workers, led by the working class was the Paris Commune of 1871. As a result of the Great October Socialist Revolution in 1917, there was the Soviet nation - the world's first workers' nation, to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat. In 1924, embarked on the path of socialist development Mongolian People's Republic. The defeat of the German and Italian fascism and Japanese militarism in the 2nd World War 1939 - 1945, which caused the rapid growth of the revolutionary and national liberation movements in all regions of the world, led to the victory of the people's democratic revolution (the People's Democratic Revolution) in some countries Europe and Asia, to the emergence of the People's Democracy. The formation of these Nations meant that socialism has become a world system. In 1959 this system has entered Cuba - the first socialist, on the American continent.

Fundamentally new nature of the socialist nation in comparison with exploitative types N. could not conjure up new institutions of nation power. The first form of socialist N. was opened by Lenin Soviet republic. Built on the principle of democratic centralism (democratic centralism) elective system (bottom to top) of the Council who enjoyed full nation power, was in the specific historical conditions of political organization uniting all workers, without exception, and represents the best opportunity for the nation leadership of the masses of the working class and its party. In the People's Democracies forms of political organization had a number of features in comparison with the Council (for example, the presence of such socio-political organizations, such as People or domestic front, two or more parties), which was due to historical peculiarities of formation in these countries N. dictatorship the proletariat. The variety of forms of socialist N. confirms Lenin's thesis: "All nations will arrive at socialism is inevitable, but not all will do exactly the same, each will contribute something to this or that form of democracy, in one or another kind of dictatorship of the proletariat, to the varying rate of socialist transformations in the different aspects of social life "(VI Lenin, ibid, vol. 30, p. 123).

Socialist transformation of society confronts nation-tion of the dictatorship of the proletariat a variety of tasks, taking into account the level of economic development and culture, social structure, national characteristics and traditions of each country. But regardless of the specific conditions of a country in transition from capitalism to socialism before each N. dictatorship of the proletariat faces the tasks arising from the very nature of this period: crackdown overthrown exploiting classes, the abolition of private ownership of the basic means of production, the creation of the economic foundations of socialism (socialist industrialization, the socialist transformation of agriculture, the establishment of the socialist economic system), the formation of socialist culture, education of the new man, the country's defense. In line with these objectives was carried out by a number of functions (external and internal): economic-organizational, cultural, educational, control over the measure of labor and measure of consumption, the socialist rule of law and protection of socialist property, the country's defense against attack from the outside and the struggle for peaceful coexistence of Nations with different social systems, the functions of the socialist N. expand and change with the development of socio-economic structure of society, the success of socialist construction. So, as a result of the elimination of the exploiting classes in the USSR lost its value function of the nation to suppress the resistance of these classes. In carrying out its functions, the socialist N. acted as the main instrument of building socialism and communism is a political organization, the vast majority of the population. In the process of development of socialist, his social base is constantly expanding, it has become increasingly representative of the interests of all the people.

After a complete and final victory of socialism dictatorship of the proletariat, having fulfilled its historic mission, in terms of the internal development of the country ceases to be necessary, and the proletarian nation naturally turns to the body expressing the interests and will of the people - the people's nation (see. The program of the CPSU, 1971, S. 101). This stage of development has reached a socialist in the Soviet Union, where it acted as a political organization of all the people under the leadership of the working class, led by its vanguard - the Communist Party. The social role of the whole people of the Soviet socialist N. steadily increased. The decisions of the 24th Congress (1971) emphasized the role of the Soviet N. in the solution of internal and external challenges facing the Soviet society at the present stage of communist construction. Significantly expanded functions such socialist N. as economic-organizational, cultural, educational, and others. (The content of these functions at the present stage concretized Directives of the 24th Congress of the CPSU on the five-year plan for the development of the national economy of the USSR in 1971 - 1975). Modern revisionists criticized Marxist-Leninist theory of the socialist N., pushing the thesis about the need withering away, immediately after the conquest of political power. This concept was objectively aimed at weakening the socialist Nations. At the same time, the left-revisionist elements called for the excessive centralization, bureaucratization of all nation life.

Under the conditions of communist construction has been continuously improved the entire political system of the USSR. Proletarian democracy is transformed into a national democracy, which is characterized by the deployment of the Party Program as the main direction of development of the socialist nation. One of the leading principles of the socialist nation - wide involvement of workers in the work of nation bodies, Marx and Engels revealed the historical perspective of the proletarian, they argued that under communism the need for N. will disappear, so proletarian N. itself gradually dying, although this does not mean the withering away of any public authority in general. Under withering away, they understood the removal of a special apparatus of coercion, public political power. Economic prerequisite for the withering away of the nation, Marx and Engels believed that level of development of productive forces, in which the possible implementation of the principle of communism "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."

Lenin emphasized the fundamental difference between N. dictatorship of the proletariat is the dictatorship of the majority of the population, such as exploitative Nations, calling proletarian N. "semi-nation" (see. Poln., 5th ed., Vol. 33, pp. 231, 167). He linked the issue of the gradual withering away of the H. with the withering away of some functions of the socialist N. example suppression function defeated exploiting classes in connection with the liquidation of such classes in the USSR. However, "for the nation to wither away - wrote Lenin - need a full communism" (ibid, vol. 33, p. 95). People's socialist N. is like a stepping-stone to a nationless organization of society under communism, when the public be established communist government - non-nation forms of management of economic, social and cultural processes of a classless society. (Doctor of Law, Professor Gregory N. Manes; (May 16, 1923 - October 21, 1993))

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