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Christopher Columbus (Христофор Колумб) (Latin Columbus, the Italian Colombo, Spanish Colon) (1451-1506) — explorer, Viceroy "India" (1492), the discoverer of the Sargasso Sea and the Caribbean, the Bahamas and the Antilles, part of the northern coast of South America and the Caribbean the coastline of Central America.
In 1492-1493, Columbus led the Spanish expedition to find the shortest sea route to India, on 3 caravels ("Santa Maria", "Pinta" and "Nina") across the Atlantic Ocean, opened the Sargasso Sea and reached the 12 October 1492 the island Samana (the official date of the discovery of America), and later - the ancient Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti. Subsequent expeditions (1493-1496, 1498-1500, 1502-1504) opened the Greater Antilles, part of the Lesser Antilles and the coast of South and Central America and the Caribbean.
Christopher Columbus was born in autumn 1451 in Genoa, Genoese origin. He was taller than average, good, okay physique. Reddish hair early in his youth turned white, making it look older than their years. On the elongated wrinkled and weathered face with a beard stood out vivid blue eyes and an aquiline nose. He was distinguished by faith in divine providence and omens, and at the same time, the practicality of a rare, painful feelings and suspicion, the passion for gold. He had a sharp mind, persuasive and versatile knowledge. C. Columbus was married twice and had a marriage of these two sons.
Among the great figures of world civilization, few can compare with Columbus on the number of publications devoted to his life and at the same time by the abundance of "white spots" in the biography. More or less it is safe to say that he is a Genoese by birth, and about 1465 he entered the Genoese fleet, after a while, was seriously wounded. Prior to 1485 Christopher sailed for the Portuguese courts, lived in Lisbon and on the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo, engaged in trade, mapping and self-education. It is not clear when and where he drafted the west, in his opinion, the shortest sea route from Europe to India, the project was based on the ancient doctrine of the sphericity of the Earth and on incorrect calculations of scientists of the 15th century. In 1485 after the failure of the Portuguese king to support this project, Columbus moved to Castile, where with the help of Andalusian merchants and bankers, the organization has achieved under his command governmental maritime expedition.
The first expedition of Christopher Columbus in the years 1492-1493 90 men in three vessels - "Santa Maria", "Pinta" and "Nina" - came from Palos August 3, 1492, from the Canary Islands turned west, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, opening The Sargasso sea, and reached the island in the Bahamas archipelago, called the traveler and San Salvador, where Columbus landed on October 12, 1492 (the official date of the discovery of America). For a long time (1940-1882) of San Salvador was considered Watling Island. However, our contemporary American geographer J. Judge in 1986, processed on the computer all the materials collected and came to the conclusion that the first seen by Columbus American land was the island of Samana (120 km south-east of Watling).
October 14-24, Columbus came back to several Bahamas, and October 28 - December 5, opened part of the north-eastern coast of Cuba. December 6 reached the island of Haiti and moved along the northern coast. On the night of December 25 flagship "Santa Maria" sat on the reef, but the crew was saved. For the first time in the history of navigation on the order of Columbus's sailors under the bunks were fitted Indian hammocks.
Columbus to "Nine," 15 March 1499 returned to Castile. Political resonance swimming H. Columbus was the "papal meridian": the head of the Catholic Church has established a line of demarcation in the Atlantic, pointed vied Spain and Portugal different direction for the discovery of new lands.
The second expedition (1493-96), headed by Admiral Columbus, in the position of viceroy of the newly discovered lands consisted of 17 vessels with a crew of 1.5-2.5 million people. 3-15 November 1493 Columbus discovered the island of Dominica, Guadeloupe, and about 20 of the Lesser Antilles, 19 November island of Puerto Rico. In March 1494 in search of gold made an expedition into the interior of the island of Haiti, opened in the summer of south-eastern and southern coast of Cuba, Isla de la Juventud, and Jamaica.
Within 40 days, Columbus explored the southern coast of Haiti, the conquest of which continued in 1495. But in the spring of 1496 sailed for home, finishing second voyage on June 11 in Castile. Columbus notified about the opening of a new route to Asia. Beginning soon colonization of new lands by settlers witting cost the Spanish crown is very expensive, and the sailor offered to populate the island criminals, halving their sentence. With fire and sword, plundering and destroying the country of ancient culture, the land of the Aztecs - Mexico - were military units of Hernan Cortes, in the land of the Incas - Peru - Pizarro's troops.
|Routes voyages of Columbus H.|
The third expedition of Columbus (1498-1500) consisted of six ships, three of which he took across the Atlantic. July 31, 1498 opened the island of Trinidad, entered the Gulf of Paria, discovered the mouth of the western branch of the Orinoco Delta and Paria Peninsula, beginning the discovery of the Americas. Coming to the Caribbean, came to the peninsula of Araya, opened on August 15 and the island of Margarita on August 31 arrived in Haiti. In 1500, after being denounced and arrested Christopher Columbus in chains (which he then kept all his life) was sent to Castile, where he was waiting for the release.
Obtain permission to continue the search for the western route to India, Columbus on four courts (the fourth expedition, 1502-1504) amounted to 15 June 1502 the island of Martinique, July 30 - Gulf of Honduras, where he first met the representatives of the ancient Mayan civilization, but did not attach any importance to this.
From 1 August 1502 to 1 May 1503 opened the 2000 km of the Caribbean coast of Central America (to the Gulf of Uraba.) Not finding the passage to the west, he turned north and 25 June 1503 was wrecked off the coast of Jamaica. Help from Santo Domingo came only a year later. In Castile Columbus returned 7 November 1504 already seriously ill.
The disease, barren and painful negotiations with the King to restore the rights, lack of money undermined the recent strength of Columbus, and May 20, 1506, he died in Valladolid. His discoveries were accompanied by the colonization of land, the basis of the Spanish settlements, brutal enslavement and mass extermination squads conquistadors indigenous people called "Indians."
Christopher Columbus was not the discoverer of America: the islands and the coast of North America visited the Normans hundreds of years before him. However, only the discovery of Columbus had a world-historical significance. The fact that he has found a new part of the world, was finally proven swimming Magellan.
Name Kolubma are: a country in South America, the Province of Canada, the Federal District and the river in the United States, the capital of Sri Lanka, as well as many rivers, mountains, lakes, waterfalls, capes, towns, parks, squares, streets and bridges in different countries.
In Barcelona, a monument to Christopher Columbus (1882-88, architect K. Buichas, sculptors Limona H. and A. Vilanova).
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