Dolivo-Dobrovolsky Знаменитые тезки / Имена / Отчества / Имя-отчество / Гороскопы / Тесты/ Приметы / Имена - главная
Michael Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (Михаил Осипович Доливо-Добровольский) — Russian electrical engineer, the founder of engineering of a three-phase current.
Michael Dolivo-Dobrovolsky was born on December, 21st, 1861 (on January, 2nd 1862), in Petersburg. September 1 1878 it has arrived in the Riga polytechnical institute, but has been excluded for participation in political performances of students. 22nd of June 1884 Michael has ended the higher technical school in Darmstadt in Germany and has gone to work the designer on factories of the electrotechnical company of Thomas Alva Edison (subsequently firm AEG; since 1909 Dolivo-Dobrovolsky was the director of this firm).
Michael Osipovich has improved moving-iron ammetres and voltmeters for measurement of constant and variable currents (1887 - 1888). To a various sort of measuring means has successfully applied a principle of the engine with rotating magnet field (1892). Has created also devices for elimination in phones of hindrances from electrical networks of heavy currents (1892), has invented a way of division of pressure of the direct current, based on application of the stationary coil of inductance which he named a voltage divider (1893).
In 1888 Dolivo-Dobrovolsky has constructed the first three-phase generator of an alternating current with rotating magnet field capacity of 2,2 kw, has offered the asynchronous motor of a three-phase alternating current with a rotor from cast iron with get the hollow copper cylinder. Soon the design of the asynchronous electric motor has been considerably improved by application of a rotor of type of "the squirrel wheel» (1889).
During the same period the scientist has developed all elements of three-phase circuits of an alternating current: transformers of a three-phase current (1890), starter rheostats, measuring means (for example, the phasometer, 1894), schemes of inclusion of generators and engines a star and a triangle and others..
On August, 25th, 1891 at the World electrotechnical exhibition in Frankfurt am Main M.S.Dolivo-Dobrovolsky has shown the first-ever three-phase system of transfer of the electric power on distance about 170 km. Michael Osipovich the first has offered widely applied method of clearing of an electric arc in switching off devices (1910 - 1914).
In October 1891 patent application on a three-phase transformer with parallel rods arranged in a single plane (the German Patent №79608 from October 4, 1891 under the name «Drehstrom-Transformator mit drei Schenkeln nebeneinander in einer Ebene») was made. In principle, this arrangement has survived to the present day.
The inventor wanted to return to Russia[ru]. He was supposed to become the dean of Electromechanical Faculty of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, which opened in 1899. These plans have prevented contractual obligations with AEG, which has been linked Mikhail Osipovich.
In 1914, the outbreak of the First World War[ru] M.O. Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, retained Russian citizenship and moved to Switzerland. In 1918 he again went to Berlin, suggesting to return to work in the company AEG. However, heart[ru] disease, tormented him since children[ru] acute.
In 1919 it has put forward position that transfer of an electrical output of a reactor by an alternating current on the big distances (hundreds and thousand in km) will appear irrational because of considerable losses in a line.
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Michael Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky has died on November, 15th, 1919, in Heidelberg, Germany.