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Yevgeny Maksimovich Primakov — biography

Yevgeny Primakov

Yevgeny Maksimovich Primakov (Евгений Максимович Примаков) — Soviet and Russian economist, politician and statesman. President, Chairman of the Board of "Mercury Club"; director of the Center for Situational Analysis. Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR from November 26, 1974 to the Department of Economics, academician with the March 15, 1979.

Member of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, member of the Presidium of the Presidential Council of the Russian Federation for Science[ru] and Education, a member of the Scientific Expert Council under the Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation[ru], Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Council on Foreign Affairs. Zodiac sign — Scorpio.

Yevgeny Primakov was born on 29 October 1929, in Kiev, the Ukrainian[ru]. His father — Maxim Ye (1892-1938), was arrested three months after the birth of her son. The boy in the age of two (after the death[ru] of father) moved with his mother in Tbilisi. In the documents it is mentioned in Russian, but the real surnames of his father — Finkelstein. Mother — Anna Y. Kirshenblat (1896-1972), worked as an obstetrician-gynecologist.

Jack grew up in the most international district of Tbilisi — Plekhanov, where mixed lived Georgians, Armenians, Jews (out his age — the leader of "Mkhedrioni" Jaba Ioseliani). Since childhood, Primakov speaks Georgian and Armenian. Subsequently, it is often ranked as "Tbilisi lobby" in Moscow.

Primakov was in Marneuli, and then moved to Moscow, where he spent his youth. After the seventh grade in 1944, Eugene joined a cadet at the Naval Preparatory School in Baku, the practice of passing on the training ship "True."

In 1948, Eugene graduated from the men's high school in Tbilisi; favorite subjects he had a history, literature and mathematics.

In 1951, Primakov married Georgian Polytechnic Institute student Laura Kharadze Vasil (1930-1987), adopted daughter of the NKVD General Michael Maksimovic Gvishiani.

In 1953, Primakov had an excellent education, graduating from the Arabic department of the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies in "geographers for the Arab countries."

Purely scientific path Yevgeny Primakov chose journalism. Future foreign affairs veteran began his career with a rather modest position — correspondent structure Gosteleradioveschaniya USSR[ru] in 1953. At the invitation of the chief editor of the Arabic edition of the Main Directorate of broadcasting to foreign countries Sergey Kaverin Primakov went to work in the office.

In Primakov's innate ability to learn foreign languages, as well as to scientific work; so in 1956 he graduated from the Faculty of Economics graduate of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov Moscow State University and became a senior fellow at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, USSR Academy of Sciences (IMEMO). In the same year he wrote the book "Countries Arabia and colonialism."

From 1956 to 1962 he worked Primakov executive editor, deputy editor, chief editor. In 1957 he made his first trip to the East Mediterranean cruise. In 1959 he defended his thesis on the topic: "The export of capital in some Arab countries — a means of providing high monopoly profits", became a candidate of economic sciences. In the same year he was admitted to the Communist Party.

Climbing Primakov career ladder came in 1962: in this period and began his collaboration with Soviet intelligence. From September to December of the same year he was a senior research fellow. That same year, due to a conflict with the curators of the Propaganda Department of the CPSU Central Committee he submitted a letter of resignation on their own, and worked in the newspaper "Pravda" literary collaborator, columnist Department of Asia and Africa.

Since 1965, worked as a correspondent Primakov "Truth" in the Middle East with a stay in Cairo, deputy editor of the Asian and African countries. While serving in the Middle East, met with politicians: Zueynom and Nimeiri.

In 1969, Primakov defended his thesis on the topic "Social and economic development of Egypt", received a degree — doctor of economic sciences. In the same year during a trip to Baghdad he met Saddam Hussein, and later — with one of his close people — Tariq Aziz, who at that time was the chief editor of the newspaper Al-Thawra. The nature of work Primakov — a direct link to the "closed diplomacy": he was often in northern Iraq, where Kurdish guerrillas operated, attended the winter residence rebels Massoud Barzani. Friendship with the Iraqi president was useful on the eve of "Desert Storm", when Mikhail Gorbachev, trying to stop the attack of the allies on Iraq, sent Primakov to Baghdad and then in a number of Western and Arab capitals. This voyage, which caused irritation in the West, did not prevent the war, but has strengthened the friendship Primakov and Saddam Hussein.

In Arab countries, the establishment of residency of the KGB and GRU was paid a lot of attention. While widely practiced scouts work "under the roof" of journalism. The representative Yevgeny Primakov saw the CPSU Central Committee — a real organ of governance than any Foreign Ministry, sought contact with him through it sought to convey confidential information. As such, Primakov could be very useful and its Arab friends, and do not have a real aura scouts "embassies".

On December 30, 1970 and 1977, Primakov was deputy director of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) USSR Nikolai Inozemtsev. Five minutes PhD engaged in scientific work, Institute of themes — political, economic and social processes in Egypt.

In 1972, EM Primakov received the academic status of the professor. In the same year he co-wrote the book "International conflicts of the sixties and seventies."

On November 26, 1974, Primakov — Corresponding Member of USSR Academy of Sciences in the Department of Economics. In the same year he became a laureate of Nasser, and books were written: "The Middle East: Five Paths to Peace"; "The energy crisis: the approach Soviet scientists" and "Egypt during President Nasser" (2nd ed. 1981; co-authored with I. Belyayev).

In 1975, Primakov wrote the book "The energy crisis in the capitalist world" (editor); In the same year he was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor.

In the years 1977-1985, Primakov was the director of the Institute of Oriental Studies.

In 1978 he wrote the book "Anatomy of the Middle East conflict"; and in 1979 — "New developments in the energy sector of the capitalist world." On March 15, 1979, Primakov — professor at the Diplomatic Academy. In the same year he was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples.

In 1980, Primakov was awarded the State Prize of the USSR.

In 1981 he died of a heart attack son Alexander Primakov. Do Primakov still have a daughter Nana, from which an experienced diplomat two granddaughters. Also, the policy is a grandson from his son — Yevgeny Primakov (stage name — Eugene Sandro Sandro — in honor of his father (Alexander)), the reporter of the First Channel, Orientalist.

The current policy of the wife, Irina — the therapist, the last doctor[ru] Yevgeny Primakov. His cousin — a prominent Soviet biologist Yakov Davidovich Kirshenblat.

In 1982, Primakov wrote the book "East after the collapse of the colonial system"; and in 1983 — "East: line 80". In the same year, Primakov was awarded the Avicenna.

In 1985, Primakov was awarded the Order "Badge of Honor"; In the same year he wrote the book "The Story of a conspiracy: US Middle East policy in the 70 — early. 80s. ". From 1985-1989 he was director of IMEMO.

In 1986-1989, Eugene — a candidate member of the CPSU Central Committee, and in 1989 was elected to the Central Committee.

Primakov — the academician-secretary of the Department of Economics, since 1988 — the Department of Problems of the World Economy and International Relations, a member of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In February of the same year he was elected to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

June 3, 1989 to March 31, 1990, Primakov — the 11th chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Since September 20, 1989 to July 13, 1990 he was a candidate member of the Politburo.

In 1990, Primakov was awarded the George Kennan. With the years 1990-1991 — a member of the Presidential Council of the USSR. He was a member of the inner circle of Mikhail Gorbachev.

Prior to 1991, Primakov was the deputy of the USSR. Since 1991 — Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and in March of the same year he became a member of the Security Council of the USSR.

August 21, 1991 E.M. Primakov flew to Gorbachev in Foros in the delegation, headed by vice-president of the Russian Federation Alexander Rutskoi. September 30 the same year he became the head of the First Chief Directorate of the KGB — the first deputy chairman of the KGB. From the rank of general he refused. On November 6, Primakov became the 1st head of the Central Intelligence Service of the USSR.

Since December 26, 1991 to January 9, 1996, Primakov — 1st director of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Russia.

In September 1993, Primakov did not support the anti-constitutional decree of President Boris Yeltsin to dissolve the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Council.

In 1995, the policy was awarded the Order "For Merit III degree.

January 9, 1996, Primakov was appointed 2nd Minister for Foreign Affairs of Russia. And on January 26 in the influential newspaper "New York Times" published biography of Yevgeny Primakov in the article by William Safire. According to the American journalist, mother of Eugene married Armenian doctor and the young Eugene Finkelstein took his surname "Primakov" (from the Ukrainian "Priymak").

In 1996 Egveny wrote "Essays on the History of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service" (6 volumes). His name is linked Russia's transition from Atlanticism to the exchange rate on a multi-vector foreign policy. Diplomat Alexei Fedotov noted that being in this position, Primakov "back Russia's foreign policy and its diplomatic service merit." Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation to carry out deliberate foreign policy when it Russia developed partnerships with the countries of East and West alike.

In 1996, Primakov was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

In 1998, the policy was awarded the Order "For Services to the Motherland II degree — for services to the state and a large contribution to the foreign policy of Russia.

When Prime Minister Sergei Kiriyenko was a crisis August 17, 1998. Primakov said: "Reduction of import importzameschayuschim helped domestic industries to rise, but the banking system is lying. Railways stopped. The country was on the brink of hyperinflation. Public sector wages were not paid for months — is accumulated until the climax of the crisis. It should be added non-payment of money allowances of the army and a huge debt to pensioners. The government has managed to bring the country out of this difficult situation. Economy earned."

September 10 the same year President Yeltsin Yevgeny Primakov proposed for the post of the third Prime Minister of Russia. September 11 Primakov's candidacy was approved by the State Duma, voted for him 315 out of 450 deputies, as well as the opposition Communist faction. Before the appointment of Prime Minister Primakov received a proposal from Viktor Chernomyrdin to be his first deputy and gave its consent, but the State Duma has not supported the appointment of Chernomyrdin as prime minister. Speaking on September 16 at the enlarged meeting of the Board of the Russian Foreign Ministry, Primakov said the argument about a "red revenge", "completion of reforms" are without the slightest reason.

March 24, 1999, Primakov went to Washington for an official visit. Over the Atlantic, he learned by phone from the US vice-president Al Gore, that the decision to bomb Yugoslavia. Primakov decided to cancel the visit and ordered to return to Moscow.

May 12, 1999, Primakov was dismissed from the post of prime minister. His appointment and dismissal of the prime minister in 8 months — a conflict with the "family" and Berezovsky had gone too far. During the period when Primakov headed the cabinet, brilliant results were achieved: industrial production grew by 23.8%, the inflation rate decreased from 38 to 3%. Primakov's resignation was greeted with a population of very negative: 81% of respondents fund "Public opinion" said they did not approve of it. The majority of respondents expressed the view that the government of Primakov managed to achieve economic and political stability in Russia.

November 12, 1999 published an interview with Mikhail Rostovsky Primakov in the newspaper "Moskovsky Komsomolets". When our country was at a crossroads: Yeltsin announced Vladimir Putin[ru] successor", and Primakov, who spoke about his intention to run for the presidency, refused to participate in the election of 2000...

Primakov: "On the eve of the fourth time refused to premiership, and we even had a drink with my wife a glass for my failure ... For the fifth time refused to ten in the morning the next day in the office of the president. I was leaving, but then I was surrounded on all sides there were Tatyana Dyachenko, and my good friend Vladimir Shevchenko. He told me that I just do not have the right to refuse, because in this case it may be neither the Duma nor the government. And the country will be in a critical condition — in fact the president is not in the best physical shape. It was only then that I agreed ... I reject the maxim that I have betrayed the president. If I aim to further a political career, I would not like to spoil relations with the governors. The government gave it transfers only under some specific tasks. When these tasks are not performed, required to remedy the situation, threatening otherwise to direct law enforcement officials to check ... I repeat almost verbatim statements by senior executives such as the presidential administration Alexander Voloshin, who made the Kremlin's actions in private ... — Voloshin — a man, which I think is very much hurt the nation[ru], as to prioritize the task to push the president to the prime minister ... The meeting with the leaders of the Left faction, I told them: "This will be your greatest mistake, if you continue to fight for impeachment. Impeachment would not take place, and in this case you really lose."

December 19, 1999, Primakov was elected to the State Duma of the third convocation. In the same year he was awarded the Order of Friendship (Tajikistan), and wrote the book "The years in politics."

In 2000, Primakov was awarded the International Prize of Hugo Grotius — for his great contribution to the development of international law and for the establishment of the doctrine of a multipolar world. From the year 2000-2001 — Deputy of the State Duma convocation and III — Chairman of the faction "Fatherland — All Russia" (OVR).

In 2001, Primakov received a commemorative medal Gorchakov (Russian Foreign Ministry), and wrote the book "Eight months plus ...". Two period, from December 2001 to 21 February 2011 Primakov served as president of the Chamber of Commerce in Russia. Primakov — one of the leading Russian Orientalists, a prominent scientist in the world economy and international relations: in an integrated development of foreign policy of Russia, studying the theory and practice of international conflicts and crises, the study of world civilization process, global problems, socio-economic and political problems of developing countries.

In 2002, Primakov was awarded the National Prize of business reputation "Darin" of the Russian Academy of Business and Entrepreneurship. In the same year he wrote the book "The World After September 11".

In 2003, the policy was awarded the International Prize "Golden Aquarius" in the nomination "For the honor and dignity."

October 27, 2004, Primakov was awarded the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise V degree — for his outstanding personal contribution to the development of Ukrainian-Russian economic and political relations and in connection with the 75th anniversary of the birth. In the same year he received the Order of Honor — for his great contribution to the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation and many years of honest work.

March 22, 2005, Primakov was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples (Belarus) — for his great personal contribution to the development and strengthening of Belarusian-Russian relations. A December 22 Primakov received the Order "Danaker" — for his significant contribution to the strengthening of friendship and cooperation, the development of trade and economic relations between the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation.

In 2006, Eugene wrote the book: "Minefield policy" and "Confidential: The Middle East on the stage and behind the scenes" (2nd edition 2012).

In 2007 he was awarded the Order of I degree Dostyk (Kazakhstan).

May 26, 2008 Yevgeny Primakov became a member of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Education. In the same year he received the Lomonosov[ru] Gold Medal (RAS).

October 29, 2009, Primakov was awarded the Order of the Holy Prince Daniel of Moscow, I degree (ROC) — for many years of fruitful social activities and public services. In the same year he was awarded the Order of the Republic (Dnestr Moldavian Republic) and the Order "For Services to the Fatherland I degree — for outstanding service to the state in the development of international cooperation, strengthening of foreign economic relations of the Russian Federation and many years of fruitful scientific activity. Then he wrote the book "The World without Russia? Where does the political short-sightedness."

February 21, 2011 Primakov, announced his resignation as president of the Chamber of Commerce in Russia. During a press conference on the upcoming next congress CCI, he recalled that for two terms as head of the Chamber. "This is enough, at this Congress, I will not be re-elected" — he said. On March 4 at the VI Congress of CCI Primakov officially resigned as president. The new head of the CCI was elected deputy Primakov S. Katyrin.

In 2011, "Rossiyskaya Gazeta" published "Thoughts Aloud" Yevgeny Primakov. His books have been republished abroad in Chinese, Italian, English, Bulgarian, Turkish, Persian, Arabic, German, Japanese, Greek, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian and French.

November 23, 2012 Primakov was elected Chairman of the Board of Directors of OAO "RTI" (solutions in the field of integrated communications and security). In the same year he was awarded the Demidov Prize, and received a commemorative medal "20 years of independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan" and the order "Al-Fakhr I degree (the highest award of the Council of Muftis of Russia) — for outstanding contribution to the cause of fruitful service to the multinational Russian society, strengthen cooperation between the peoples of the Russian Federation and the Arab-Muslim world, and the development of the national school of Islamic studies and training of qualified personnel of scientists and orientalists.

In 2014, Primakov was awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky — for labor achievements, many years of diligent work and social activities. In the same year he was awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation for outstanding achievements in the field of humanitarian activities in 2013.

Primakov: "Youth — a disease that, unfortunately, is cured. It runs absolutely everyone. Adenauer stood at the head of Germany in 73 years, de Gaulle dosidel French presidential almost 80 years...

I have not drawn into this discussion with him (Dorenko). I never even say his family name. He would have listened to me on Chechnya, and then would ask his pants and show his scar, or what?.

When the general director of TASS Ignatenko dinners held in the presence of chief editor, I may not be very clever acting. I had the temerity to ask, referring to a particular editor in chief: "Why did you write this or that truth?" As a result, the impression that I easily vulnerable.

Second. I've never really liked to loom in front of TV cameras. And finally, the third point. You know perfectly well that before the arrival of the government, which I had the honor to lead, in the White House was the Brownian motion of the corridors. And all went into any classrooms, seized any materials from the tables and were given working materials, the first "blanks" of the finished material, which is almost accepted by the Government.

I can say that as far as my acquaintance with Luzhkov and as my political partnership with him, I more and more I gain friendly relations with him."

Yevgeny Maksimovich Primakov


Primakov's cousin — a prominent Soviet biologist Yakov Davidovich Kirshenblat.

In 1951, Primakov married Georgian Polytechnic Institute student Laura Kharadze Vasil (1930-1987), adopted daughter of the NKVD General M. Gvishiani.

The children — son Alexander (who died in 1981 of a heart attack) and daughter Nana, with whom Yevgeny Primakov two granddaughters. Grandson of the son — Yevgeny Primakov (stage name — Eugene Sandro Sandro — in honor of his father (Alexander)), the reporter of the First Channel, Orientalist.

The current wife — Irina, a therapist, a former doctor Yevgeny Primakov.

The main work of E.M. Primakov

E. Primakov is the author of several monographs and books of memoirs, including:


State awards and prizes

Faith-based awards

Yevgeny Primakov

Awards of foreign countries

Departmental awards

Public Prize

Yevgeny Maksimovich Primakov died on 26 June 2015 in Moscow. A memorial service was held June 29, at the Hall of Columns. The funeral service was made patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill, who knew the great politician and diplomat for many years. Attending the farewell Russian President Vladimir Putin laid a wreath at the tomb and stood for a while with his head.

Evgenij Maksimovich was buried with military honors at the Novodevichy cemetery.

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