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Music

"I don't know how to sing 'like black' and I don't know what 'white music' is. Music has no color... " (c) Whitney Houston

Music

Music (from the Greek musike, literally-the art of the muses; this article is in russian - Музыка) - is an art form in which the means of embodying artistic images are a certain way organized musical sounds. The main elements and expressive means of music are fret, rhythm, meter, tempo, volume dynamics, timbre, melody, harmony, polyphony, instrumentation. the music is recorded in the musical notation and implemented in the performance process.

The origin of the music

The names of the notes were invented by the italian guido d'arezzo. Full names of notes:

Mode is the most important aesthetic category of music; a system of sound-pitch connections united by a central sound (consonance). It is embodied in the scale (sound system). The elements of the tune (sounds, harmonies) are in the certain relations between (modal functions, stable and unstable). historical forms of the fret: singing of the tone-base with sounds close in pitch; modal (monodic) frets associated with the principle of the melody-model (modus, popevki; see ancient greek frets, natural frets, medieval frets, makam, raga); european harmonic tonality of the 17th and 19th centuries. (major and minor). New high-rise structures in music of the 20th century (including dodecaphony) are used along with classical and updated ancient types of fret (there are also: pentatonic, diatonic, chromaticism

I want to be your music — Dmitry Hvorostovsky

Pentatonic - (from the Greek pente - five and tonos - tone) is a sound system containing 5 sounds. The scale of the main type of pentatonic scale is non-semitone, or angemitone (with intervals between adjacent sounds of 1 and 11/2 tones). The functions of the main tone in the pentatonic scale can be performed by any of 5 sounds. It is found in the old songs of many peoples, including the Tatars, Bashkirs, Buryats and other peoples of the world.

Dance of the golden snakes

Diatonic (from the Greek diatonikos, lit. - stretched), heptatonic (from the Greek hepta - seven and tonos - tone), in music - a 7-step interval system, all sounds of which can be arranged in pure fifths. Many ancient Greek, medieval and other natural modes are diatonic. The pentatonic scale, medieval hexachords, etc. can be interpreted as incomplete diatonic systems. Diatonic is the basis of modal thinking in European music.

Chromatism (from the Greek chromatismos - color), in music - a semitone interval system of two types: the ancient Greek "chrome" - a scale with an increased second and a succession of 2 semitones in a row; the new European chromatism, which arose as a "coloring" of diatonicity and has a number of varieties (from the minimal manifestation of chromatism in the form of a mixture of close diatonic structures to full 12-sound chromatism), manifests itself in modulations, deviations, with alteration of diatonic steps.

Major (French majeur, from Latin major - larger, as well as dur, from Latin durus - hard) is a mode based on a large (major) triad. In contrast to the minor key, the major has a light color.

Main scale

Main scale in C major (C-dur)

C major (C-dur)

Minor - is a determinant composed of elements consisting at the intersection of arbitrarily selected k rows and k columns of a given matrix or determinant.

Main scale

Main scale in A minor (A-minor)

A minor (A-moll)

Rhythm (Greek rhythmos, from rheo - flow) is the alternation of any elements (sound, speech, etc.), occurring with a certain sequence, frequency; the rate of flow, of doing something. In music, the temporary organization of musical sounds and their combinations. Since the 17th century, a bar, accent rhythm based on the alternation of strong and weak stresses has been established in the art of music. The meter serves as the rhythm organization system. See also rhythmic drawing.

The rhythmic pattern is in music: a sequence of durations of sounds, abstracted from their height. One of the components of the melody (along with the pitch pattern). In accordance with this meter, the durations are often combined into rhythmic groups (eighth, sixteenth, etc.; see also the dotted rhythm). In vocal melodies, the rhythmic pattern often reflects the rhythm of artistic speech and the metrics of verse. In applied music, an isolated rhythmic pattern (on percussion instruments) is used for signals, processions and dances.

Music has tied us — Tatiana Ovsienko

Dotted rhythm (from Latin punctum - point), in music - a rhythmic pattern formed when the beat fraction is increased by half the duration due to a twofold decrease in the next, weaker beat. It is indicated by a dot to the right of the note.

Melody (from the Greek melodia - singing, singing, song) is a monophonic musical thought, the main element of music. Melody - a series of sounds, organized in modal-intonation, rhythmically and forming a certain structure. The specific component of the melody is the pitch line.

The division of music into secular and spiritual is accepted.

The main area of ​​sacred music is cult (the oldest surviving now is the music of Buddhist ritual). The development of the European musical theory of musical notation and musical pedagogy is associated with European cult music (usually called church music). By performing means, music is divided into vocal (singing), instrumental (see musical instruments), and vocal-instrumental. Music is often combined with choreography, theater art, cinema.

Note writing (notation) (from Latin notatio - recording, designation) is a system of graphic signs for recording music, as well as its very recording. The modern system of musical notation was preceded by an irresponsible, mensural system. In modern musical notation, a 5-line staff is used; on the rulers and between the rulers, as well as on additional rulers and between them, notes are written - signs denoting sounds.

Sheet music - an old French song - P.I. Tchaikovsky

Choreography (from the Greek choreo - I dance): initially - recording a dance, then - the art of composing a dance, ballet, from the late 19th - early 20th centuries, dance art in general.

Musical instruments are instruments designed to extract musical sounds (see musical sound). The oldest functions of musical instruments are magic, signal and others, which existed already in the Paleolithic and Neolithic times. In modern musical practice, musical instruments are divided into different classes and families according to the source of sound, material of manufacture, method of sound production, and other characteristics. There are: wind musical instruments, keyboard musical instruments, metallophones, stringed musical instruments, percussion musical instruments, electric musical instruments.
Distinguish between monophonic music (monody) and polyphonic (homophony, polyphony).

Musical form:

1) A complex of expressive means embodying a certain ideological and artistic content in a musical work.

2) The structure, structure of a piece of music. In each work, the musical form is individual, but there are relatively stable types of various scales - period, simple and complex two-part, simple and complex three-part forms, variations, rondo, sonata form, etc. The smallest semantic and structural unit of a musical form is a motive; two or more motives form a phrase; phrases form a sentence; two sentences often form a period (usually 8 or 16 bars). In the form of a period, the themes of a piece of music are usually presented. Basic principles of shaping - presentation of thematic material (exposition), its exact or varied repetition, development, comparison with new topics; repetition of previously presented material after a section that develops it or is based on new material (reprise). These principles often interact.

On December 1, 2012, Advanced Audio Coding (AAC is a proprietary (proprietary) lossy audio file format) was introduced as a state[ru] standard for coding audio broadcasting signals with redundancy reduction for transmission over digital communication channels in the Russian Federation[ru]. AAC is a multi-channel audio coding algorithm that supports streaming. Advanced Audio Coding was originally created as a successor to MP3 with improved coding quality. The AAC format, officially known as ISO / IEC 13818-7, was released in 1997 as a new, seventh part of the MPEG-2 family.

Music genres

Music is divided into genera and types - theatrical (opera, etc.), symphonic, chamber music, etc .; genres - song, chorale, dance, march, symphony, suite, sonata, etc. Musical works are characterized by certain, relatively stable typical structures (see musical form).

A symphony (from the Greek symphonia - consonance) is a piece of music for a symphony orchestra, written in a cyclic sonata form, the highest form of instrumental music. Usually consists of 4 parts. The classical type of symphony took shape in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (Franz Josef Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven). Lyric symphonies (Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn) and a program symphony (Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt) acquired great importance among romantic composers.

An important contribution to the development of symphonies was made by Western European composers of the 19th and 20th centuries (Gustav Mahler, Johannes Brahms, Anton Bruckner, Cesar Frank, Antonin Dvorak, Jan Sibelius, etc.). Significant place of symphony in Russian (Alexander Porfirevich Borodin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov, Alexander Nikolaevich Scriabin, Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninov, Nikolai Yakovlevich Myaskovsky, Sergei Sergeevich Prokofiev, Dmitry Dmitrievich Shostakovich, Aram Ilyich Khachaturian, etc.).

Wedding March — Mendelssohn
To Eliza — Beethoven
Vienna waltz — Prokofiev

March is a musical genre characterized by a strictly measured tempo, clear rhythm, vigorous, courageous, heroic character. Provides synchronized movement of a large number of people. Military marches are created for the military (brass) band. Used in opera and ballet, as well as an independent piece. A special kind is the funeral march.

March, from ballet "Nutcracker" — Tchaikovsky
Funeral march — Chopin

Chorale (Middle-century lat. Cantus choralis - choral chant) - religious chants in Latin (Gregorian chant in the Catholic Church) or in native languages ​​(for example, Protestant chant in the Lutheran church in Germany). In some countries, chants like the chorale had different names (Hussite songs in the Czech Republic).

Suite (French suite, lit. - row, sequence) is an instrumental cyclical piece of music from several contrasting parts. The suite is distinguished from sonata and symphony by the absence of strict regulation of the number, character and order of parts, close connection with song and dance. The suite of the 17th-18th centuries consisted of allemandes, chimes, sarabandas, gigi and other dances. In the 19th and 20th centuries, orchestral non-dance suites were created (PI Tchaikovsky), sometimes programmatic ones (Scheherazade by Nikolai Andreevich Rimsky-Korsakov). There are suites composed of music from operas, ballets, as well as music for theatrical performances.

Scheherazade — the sea and the ship of Sinbad — Rimsky-Korsakov

A sonata (Italian sonata, from sonare - to sound) is a musical genre, a piece for one or several instruments, written in the form of a sonata cycle (see cyclical forms). The classical type of sonata (parts 2-4) developed at the end of the 18th century in the works of J. Haydn and W. A. ​​Mozart; high examples of sonatas, varied in imagery and compositional principles, were created by L. Beethoven. The genre received significant development in Western European music of romanticism (Robert Alexander Schumann, F. Schubert, Frederic Chopin, F. Liszt, etc.), Russian music (Alexander Nikolaevich Scriabin, P.I. Tchaikovsky, Nikolai Karlovich Medtner, S.V. Rachmaninov, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, S. S. Prokofiev, D. D. Shostakovich and others).

Prelude, Op. 11 No. 2 — Scriabin

Ethnic music (ethnics, ethno music; music of the peoples of the world, music of the world; eng. Ethnic music, world music) is music associated with the musical traditions of the people, combining traditional folk and modern folk music. For example, the instrument - Vargan (the name possibly comes from the Old Slavic varg - mouth, or Greek όργανον, organon - instrument) is a musical instrument in the form of a reed freely vibrating in the opening of the frame, set in motion by a finger or by pulling a string. Since ancient times, the jew's harp was widespread in Asia and Oceania (except for the Middle East). The oldest specimen of the 3rd - 1st century BC. e. was found in Mongolia at the site of the Xiongnu people. The jew's harp came to Latin and North America during their colonization from the end of the 16th - 17th centuries and was actively used in commodity exchange.

The sound of the vargan

The influence of music on living organisms

In humans, listening to music can be accompanied by a feeling of euphoria caused by the release of dopamine in the striatum region of the brain.

Scientists have found that in humans, rabbits, cats, guinea pigs and dogs, music can change blood pressure, increase heart[ru] rate, and decrease the rhythm and depth of respiratory movements until breathing completely stops. In dogs from the Pinscher breed group, these changes are stronger than in other dogs (pressure changes by 70 mm Hg).

In Japan, an experiment was conducted that showed that breastfeeding mothers listening to classical music increased the amount of milk by 20-100%, while those listening to jazz and pop music decreased by 50-20%.

Classical music reduces the aggressiveness of a new species of bees bred in Brazil, but the bees enjoying the music stop working.

Even among animals of the same species there are differences: a certain part is indifferent to music, a part is very sensitive and receptive, and some are capable of active musical creativity.

The factor of music perception is national and cultural affiliation. For example, a European will not always feel comfortable listening to oriental tunes, and prolonged exposure to such music can cause him a severe mental disorder. While the people of Asia are unlikely to like Western music.

Playing the piano helps to harmonize the psyche, normalizes the functioning of the kidneys and bladder, and cleanses the thyroid gland. The sounds of the organ stimulate brain activity, contribute to the normalization of energy flows in the spine.

Stringed instruments: guitar, harp, violin, cello - normalize the work of the cardiovascular system. In addition, the sound of this group of instruments evokes compassion in a person, a readiness for self-sacrifice.
Wind instruments promote the work of the respiratory system, cleanse the lungs and bronchi. They have a beneficial effect on blood circulation.

Percussion instruments, in turn, help restore the rhythm of the heart, heal the liver and circulatory system.

Any music relieves muscle tension and increases mobility. Promotes a clearer and more specific perception of information.

By studying the influence of music on humans, scientists have established the miraculous effect of many classical works. Especially a huge amount of talk is about the creations of such geniuses as Mozart, Vivaldi, Grieg, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Tchaikovsky and Claude Debussy. It is believed that Mozart's music activates brain activity and promotes the rapid assimilation of information. Beethoven's Fidelio, Oginsky's Polonaise and Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody will help relieve headaches. The plays by Tchaikovsky, Grieg and Sibelius can be considered the best cure for insomnia. Regular listening to works from Vivaldi's Seasons cycle improves memory.

Sad waltz — J. Sibelius

People with amusia are unable to recognize and play music.

Amusia (from the ancient Greek. Ἀμουσία - non-involvement with muses) is a loss of the ability to understand or play music, write and read notes, which occurs when the temporal lobes of the cortex of the right hemisphere (in right-handers) are damaged due to hearing impairment. It manifests itself in the lack of recognition of well-known pieces of music, in the difficulty of perception and reproduction of rhythmic combinations of sounds (arrhythmia). Often amusia is combined with auditory agnosia, in which ordinary sounds or noises cease to be distinguished.

Music plays on the boat — Apina Alena

Videos of amazing musical performances

A professional pianist played on a random piano:

A little boy on drums anneals:

Poems and quotes of celebrities about music

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe:

The greatness of art is most clearly manifested in music.

Afanasy Fet:

What you can't say with words - sound to your soul.

Jean Paul:

Adriano Celentano:

I believe that music is the voice of a special spirit, whose task is to collect the dreams of the world, and which, passing through the consciousness of people, is able to settle, even for a short time, their strife, or shake souls, destroying social inconveniences.

George Michael:

I don't know a single person who can live without music. When you get up in the morning, the song you hear on the radio can determine how you start your day. This is the power of music. Music is closely related to feelings. With music, you make the feelings you want to experience stronger. There is no doubt that music changes people's lives. I am very glad that music has changed my life, becoming its main meaning.

Sting:

The ideal music is silence, and the musicians are busy creating a beautiful frame around this perfection.

H. Iglesias and Sting — Fragile

Sergio Barbarin:

Life is like music... It must be created with the help of hearing, intuition and feeling, and not built according to the rules...

Berthold Auerbach:

Music is the only world language, it does not need to be translated, the soul speaks with the soul in it.

Romain Rolland:

Music, like rain, drop by drop, seeps into the heart and revives it.

Ralph Waldo Emerson:

Music shows a person the possibilities of greatness that are in his soul.

Bob Marley:

Julia Borisova:

But if you have the ability to breathe[ru] music,
Then everything is felt a little differently.
Slightly differently, the world in consonance is designated
And it should be understood a little differently...

But if you have the ability to live[ru] music,
Then the melodies of events are heard brighter.
Amid melodic inspirations and discoveries
It is much easier to appreciate life and loved ones...

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