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Abraham Lincoln - biography

Abraham Lincoln

I don't care about a human religion that doesn't care about the welfare of cats and dogs

Abraham Lincoln (original article in Russian[ru]Авраам Линкольн) — American statesman, 16th President of the United States in the years 1861-1865, one of the organizers of the Republican Party (1854), speaking against slavery. Zodiac sign — Aquarius.

During the American Civil War of 1861-1865 the government of Lincoln held a series of democratic reforms, in particular, has enacted laws on the Homestead Act, the abolition of slavery, ensured the defeat of Confederate troops.

Portrait of Abraham Lincoln decorated with a modern 5-dollar bill.

The choice of the path

Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809, near the Hodzhenvilla into a poor farmer's family. Due to the frequent moving attend school intermittently, but regularly engaged in self-education, becoming an avid bookworms. From an early age, Abraham helped the family on the farm, he worked for wages.

From 1831 Lincoln settled in New Salem (Illinois), where he worked as a clerk in a store, a surveyor, and then joined the militia opposing the Indians, but did not participate in combat. In 1833-36 was the local postmaster, and studied law, and in 1836 was admitted to practice law.

Formation of Abraham Lincoln as a politician

In 1834-42 Abraham Lincoln was elected four times in the Illinois legislature on the Whig party. In 1837 he moved to the state capital of Springfield. In 1842 he married Mary Todd. In 1847-49 he represented Illinois in the lower house of the U.S. Congress, opposed the war with Mexico and the slave trade. In subsequent years, practiced law, became one of the leading lawyers of the State, was a consultant to the railroad, "Illinois Central".

In 1856, Abraham Lincoln joined the newly formed Republican Party. During the elections in 1858 attracted worldwide attention the debate between Lincoln and his rival for a place in the U.S. Senate, S. Douglas. The victory went to Douglas, but Lincoln's speech "House divided", the leitmotif of which was the impossibility of the continued existence of the country in a state of "semi-freedom and polurabstva", became in time a textbook, and he - a national figure.

As president

Авраам Линкольн без бороды
Lincoln won the election only once grew a beard, on the advice of a letter from a girl. At the same time, dramatically change the appearance. Later he found this girl and thanked

In the presidential election of 6 November 1860 Abraham Lincoln was able to win three of their opponents, having received the vast majority of Electoral College votes. His stay at the White House March 4th 1861 to April 15, 1865 coincided with the most tragic period in U.S. history - the Civil War in the United States. At Lincoln's election slave states responded secession - withdrawal from the Union and the declaration in February 1861 the Confederate States of America. "We must not be enemies," - declared Lincoln when he took office, but the Confederate armed uprising prompted him to take action.

A.Linkoln considered slavery evil, inevitable in the south of the country's existing economic conditions. The question of slavery it is the responsibility of the states themselves, and believed that the government has no constitutional right to interfere in this issue. However, he strongly opposed the spread of slavery into new territories, which undermined the foundations of slavery, because it will inevitably require extensive character[ru] advancement on undeveloped lands of the West.

An important achievement of the administration of Abraham Lincoln was the adoption in May 1862, Homestead Act, which provides that every citizen of the country granting the land allotment of 160 acres (64 hectares). The law inflicted a heavy blow to slavery and led to a radical solution of the agrarian problem - the развитию сельского хозяйства by way of farming.

Emancipation of slaves

As events unfold rather moderate, compromise position on slavery, Lincoln changed. The main purpose of the administration - the restoration of the Union - was unattainable without the abolition of slavery throughout the country. To acknowledge this reality Abraham Lincoln did not come immediately. Purely civilian people, under pressure from all sides, criticized for its military defeat and economic difficulties, the president at the right time to take decisive steps to quell the rebellion, not stopping even to the restrictions of civil liberties or the expenditure of funds not yet approved by Congress.

Lincoln advocated the gradual emancipation of the slaves on a reimbursable basis, but the time came when he realized that "slavery must die that the nation might live." 22 September 1862, he announced that from 1 January of the coming year, all slaves "henceforth and forever will be free, "and December 30 signed the "Emancipation Proclamation." 1863 brought the armies of the Union victory at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. Speaking November 19th 1863 at the opening of the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Abraham Lincoln said that the soldiers resting here gave their lives so that the country has found a "new birth of freedom" and "the government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." This brief, total of 10 sentences, it has become a true manifesto of American democracy, and Lincoln has strengthened its reputation as a brilliant orator.

On February 1, 1865, Negro slavery was abolished in the United States. The President kept his promise. Lincoln signed a congressional resolution on introduction of the 13th amendment to the U.S. Constitution that abolished slavery: "Neither the United States nor in any other place that is subject to their power, should not exist neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime the Commission of which the offender needs to be properly convicted". Since then, in the United States this date is celebrated as national freedom day.

Re-election and the murder of

In the elections of 1864, despite objections from some politicians and their own doubts, Abraham Lincoln defeated his opponent in the Democratic Party, General JB McClellan. Lincoln believed that freed slaves should be enshrined in law. At his insistence, Congress 31 January 1865 adopted the XIII-th Amendment to the Constitution prohibiting slavery in the United States and entered into force after ratification by the states in December of that year.

In early 1865 the northerners have a quick victory was never in doubt. On the agenda were issues of Reconstruction - restoration of 11 seceded states as full subjects of the federation. Abraham Lincoln in December 1863 promised amnesty to all rebels, except for their immediate supervisors, subject to an oath of allegiance to the United States and the recognition of the abolition of slavery. Acts of secession of the southern states he considered legally invalid and was convinced that its abolition will automatically mean the restoration of the state in the Union.

The president spoke for an early conclusion of peace, and personally went to 3 February to meet with leaders of the Confederacy, broke down owing to the unconstructive position of the Southerners. In his second inaugural address, Lincoln called upon to renounce vengeance. "Not to anyone harboring evil, full of mercy, firm in the truth," Americans need to "bind up the wounds of the country ... to do everything possible to gain and maintain a just and lasting peace in the house and with all nations of the world." President failed to realize their dreams.

April 14, 1865, on Good Friday to play in a theater in Washington, Ford's fanatical supporter of the Confederate actor John W. Booth entered the presidential box and shot Abraham Lincoln in the head. The next morning, without regaining consciousness, the president died.


Lincoln Abraham-the 16th President of the United States, a descendant of Puritan settlers, was born[ru] in Kentucky in 1809. In 1817 he moved with his father to Indiana, then almost not inhabited, and in 1830 — even further into the West, in Illinois. Young Abraham lived a normal life of pioneer children at that time: he helped his father from an early age in building a house, in field work, in logging and hunting. With great physical strength, pure American energy, resourcefulness in danger and efficiency, he was a farmer, a lumberjack, a hunter, a traveling agent of a trading company, an employee in the post office, a boatman.

In 1832, he took part as a volunteer in an expedition organized against the Black Falcon, an Indian leader who disturbed the white settlers with his raids; here he was chosen as captain. Later he tried to organize his own trade business, but went bankrupt and began to prepare for the title of lawyer, tirelessly working on the completion of his meager school education. Lincoln passed the bar exam in 1836 on the lawyer; he was previously elected to the Illinois legislature. He masterfully mastered the national language; his speech, full of humor, apt comparisons, biblical images, he always knew how to arrange his listeners in their favor. He was helped by the reputation of the highest integrity.

During his travels in trade, he had the opportunity to become acquainted with slavery and hated it; however, he found that "the spread of theories hostile to slavery (in the form in which they arose at that time) leads more to the strengthening of the evil of slavery than to its complete eradication. The Congress of the United States, in the letter and meaning of the Constitution, may not intervene in the question of the servitude of individual States of the Union." This view, which separated Abraham from the abolitionists, pushed him into the ranks of Whigs who fought slavery on the basis of private, though quite important issues: slavery in the district of Columbia, the accession of a slave or free state to the Union (Texas), the abolition of The Missouri compromise.

From 1846 to 1848, Abraham Lincoln was a member of Congress; in 1854, he was re-elected to Congress. The Whig party broke up at the time; Lincoln was one of the prominent organizers of the new Republican party. In 1856, he fought with Douglas for a Senator from Illinois, but was not elected; in the same year, he was nominated for Vice presidency, but the democratic party won the election.

In 1858, Abraham said, became very popular, talking about "Dissension in the house", where he argued that slavery is the source of such discord in the United States and will be the death of the Union, unless canceled; the fight against it is needed, but direct interference of the Union in the Affairs of individual States it would be unconstitutional. However, indirect measures, for which he was standing was so dangerous for the slaveholders, slave States were looking at the possible rise of Lincoln as a heavy blow.

In may 1860, the Republican Convention in Chicago elected Abraham a candidate for presidency, and in November of the same year he was elected President. Immediately the Southern States at the Convention in Charleston decided to postpone the Union. The President of the Republic, Democrat Buchanan, recognized this separation as legal.

When Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, the situation was very difficult. Southern States managed to organize, to develop a Constitution and prepare for war; the Treasury of the Union and its Arsenal were empty because of Buchanan. In his opening speech, Abraham stated that he still did not recognize the Union's right to interfere with the issue of slavery in individual States; but, he said, "I look at the Union, in accordance with the Constitution, as an indivisible whole and will faithfully enforce the laws of the Union in all States."

This conciliatory speech did not lead to the goal. The southern States went to war. During the war, Lincoln discovered great energy and administrative talent, and this immortalized his name. At first, he did not want to look at the war as a struggle against slavery, and even deprived the power of General Fremont, arbitrarily proclaimed the liberation of slaves in Missouri. But already on September 22, 1862, the Union's constrained position forced him to recognize all slaves in the Union's territory as free; by this he attracted a lot of Negroes to the ranks of the fighting.

Lincoln was re-elected President of the Republic in 1864. April 9, 1865 ended the war, and April 14, Lincoln was killed at the theater in Washington by a gunshot, a former actor booth (Booth). From the box of President Booth jumped on stage, shouted: "Freedom! The South has been avenged!"and fled. A few moments later, he was killed by soldiers during his arrest.

Lincoln died on the morning of April 15. Death[ru] it caused an explosion of indignation and sorrow throughout the country: Lincoln, possessing a spotless purity of character and remarkable personal appeal, was undoubtedly the most popular man in the United States. In 1876, a statue of Lincoln was erected in Washington, D.C.; another statue was erected in Chicago.

Abraham Lincoln's eldest son, Robert Todd Lincoln, born in 1843, participated in the war as captain in the Grant army; from 1881-1885, he was Minister of war, and from 1889 to 1893, he was Ambassador to England. (V. Vodovozov)

Abraham Lincoln died April 15, 1865, in Washington.

The sculpture of Abraham LincolnMillions of Americans, both black and white, came to pay their last respects to their president at the time which lasted two and a half weeks traveling funeral train from Washington to Springfield, where Lincoln was buried in Oak Ridge. The tragic death of Lincoln in many ways helped create a halo around his name of a martyr who died for the liberation of slaves.

The memory of Lincoln immortalized in the memorial, which was opened in the U.S. capital in 1922. Inside this white marble structure by sculptor Charles D. Ffrench put a six-meter statue of a seated deep in thought President-Liberator. On the inner walls of the memorial under the allegorical paintings reproduced texts Gettysburg and second inaugural speeches of Abraham Lincoln.

Read[ru] more about Abraham Lincoln in the literature:

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